A car (Dutch: Mobiel) is a vehicle that uses fuel to start its engine. Car is short for otomobil which comes from the Greek 'autos' (self) and Latin 'movére' (to move). The first steam-powered vehicle was probably first designed by Ferdinand Verbiest, circa 1672. He designed a 65cm toy vehicle for the kingdom, which could not carry passengers. It is not known whether the vehicle model made by Verbiest was ever produced or not. In 1752, Leonty Shamshurenkov, made the construction of a human-powered vehicle. He also completes his vehicle with an odometer. The vehicle he made was similar to a sleigh. The first steam-powered vehicles were made in the late 18th century. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot successfully demonstrated the three-wheeled vehicle in 1769. The first vehicle powered by a steam engine, perhaps the best known steam engine upgrade, was developed in Birmingham, England by the Lunar Society. And also in Birmingham the first gasoline powered car was made in Britain in 1896 by Frederick William Lanchester who also patented the disc brake.
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In the 1890s, ethanol was used as a power source in the United States. Cugnot's invention was viewed with low regard in his native France, and the invention was passed on to Britain, where Richard Trevithick ran a steam-cart in 1801. The vehicle was considered odd at first, but inventions in the decades that followed, such as the handbrake, multi-transmission speed, and improved speed and steering, made it a success. Today, America has more cars than any other country. Japan is leading in the manufacture of cars, but the Japanese population can not afford all the needs of the car, such as limited parking space, high fuel prices, and people who choose public transportation. The first automobile patent in the United States was granted to Oliver Evans in 1789; in 1804 Evans demonstrated his first car, which was not only the first car in the US but also the first amphibious vehicle, whose steam-powered vehicle was capable of traveling on land using wheels and on water using paddle wheels. Generally the first automobile internal combustion engines running on gasoline were built almost simultaneously in 1886 by German inventors working separately.
Karl Benz on 3 July 1886 in Mannheim, and Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Stuttgart. On November 5, 1895, George B. Selden was granted a US patent for a two-stroke automobile engine. This patent had a negative impact on the development of the US auto industry. The large-scale production line of making affordable cars was carried out by Oldsmobile in 1902, and then extensively developed by Henry Ford in the 1910s. In the period from 1900 to the mid-1920s the development of automotive technology was very rapid, due to the large number (hundreds) of small car makers all competing for the world's attention. Key developments included electronic ignition and electronic self-starting (both by Charles Kettering, for the Cadillac Automobile Company in 1910-1911), independent suspension, and four-tyre brakes. By the 1930s, most of the technology in automobiles had already been invented, although it was often reinvented at a later date and given credit to others. After 1930, the number of car manufacturers decreased drastically as the industries merged and matured. Since 1960, the number of manufacturers has remained almost constant, and innovation has dwindled. In many ways, the new technology is simply an improvement over the previous technology. With the exception of the engine management invention, which hit the market in the 1960s, when electronics became cheap enough for mass production and robust enough to handle the harsh environments of the automobile. Developed by Bosch, these electronics can drastically reduce car exhaust while increasing efficiency and power. Car crashes are almost as old as the car itself.
Joseph Cugnot hit a wall in his steam-powered car "Fardier" in 1770. The first recorded fatal car accidents were Bridget Driscoll on August 17, 1896 in London and Henry Bliss on September 13, 1899 in New York City. Every year more than a million people are killed and about 50 million injured in traffic (according to WHO estimates). The main causes of accidents are drunk drivers or under the influence of drugs, inattention, too tired, road hazards (such as snow, potholes, animals, and careless drivers). Safety features have been tailor-made in cars over the years. Cars have two basic safety concerns: They have drivers who make frequent mistakes and tires that lose friction when braking close to half gravity. Automatic control has been proposed and exemplified. Initial research focused on improving brakes and reducing fire hazards in the fuel system. Systematic research in collision safety began in 1958 at the Ford Motor Company. Since then, much research has focused on the absorption of external energy with panels that break easily and reduce human movement in the passenger compartment. There are standard car safety tests, such as EuroNCAP and USNCAP. There are also tests that are aided by the insurance industry. Despite improvements in safety technology, the death rate from auto accidents remains high, in the US at around 40. 000 people die each year, a figure that continues to grow as population and travel increases, with the same trend in Europe. The death rate is expected to double worldwide by 2020. The number of deaths is higher than injuries and disabilities.
There are about 250 million cars in the United States today.
The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets and sells motor vehicles worldwide. In 2008, more than 70 million motor vehicles, including cars and commercial vehicles, were produced in the world. In 2007, a total of 71.9 million new cars were sold worldwide: 22.4 million in Europe; 21.4 million units in Asia; 19.4 million units in the United States and Canada; 4.4 million units in Latin America; 2.4 million units in the Middle East, and 1.4 million units in Africa. Markets in North America and Japan have stagnated, while those in South America and some Asian countries are growing rapidly. There are about 250 million cars in the United States today. 3.8 liters) of fuel annually. This number continues to increase rapidly, especially in China and India. Some argue that an urban transportation system based on cars will consume excessive amounts of energy, increase the risk of disease, and reduce services even if investment is increased. The sustainable transport movement is focused on solving this problem. In 2008, with the rapid increase in oil prices, the automotive industry experienced a combination of rising vehicle raw material prices and the changing nature of people in choosing vehicles. The automotive industry in several countries is also increasingly competing with public transportation because consumers are increasingly considering the use of their vehicles. About half of the 51 light vehicle factories in the United States are expected to close permanently over the next few years, with about 200. 000 jobs disappeared. Meanwhile, the Chinese market is currently the largest car manufacturer and market in the world. Flexible fuel vehicles or dual fuel vehicles are alternative fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines that are designed to use more than 1 type of fuel, usually gasoline mixed with ethanol or methanol.
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Modern flexible fuel engines can use any mixture of fuel in the combustion chamber because injection and spark timing are automatically regulated by electronic sensors. Flexible fuel vehicles differ from bi-fuel vehicles, in that the two gasolines are stored in two different tanks and the engine only burns one type of fuel at work, such as CNG, LPG, or hydrogen. Alternative fuel vehicles are vehicles that can operate on fuels other than “traditional” fuel oil (petrol or diesel); and also refers to any kind of vehicle engine technology that does not operate on gasoline, for example electric cars, hybrid electric vehicles or solar energy vehicles. Due to the combination of several factors, such as environmental concerns, high oil prices, the development of alternative fuels that are more environmentally friendly, the development of alternative fuel vehicles has become a top priority for governments and automotive manufacturers in many countries around the world. Hybrid electric vehicles such as the Toyota Prius are not actually alternative fuel vehicles, but because of the advanced technology in their electric batteries, these cars can use fuel very efficiently.
Other alternative energy research and development efforts focus on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. An electric car is a car that is driven by an electric motor, using electrical energy stored in batteries or other energy storage places. Electric cars were very popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but then their popularity waned due to advances in internal combustion engine technology and lower prices for gasoline-fueled vehicles. The energy crisis of the 1970s and 1980s had sparked little interest in electric cars, but it wasn't until the 2000s that new vehicle manufacturers took electric vehicles seriously. This is because oil prices soared in the 2000s and many people in the world are already aware of the bad impact of greenhouse gas emissions. Until November 2011, the electric models available and sold in the markets of several countries were the Tesla Roadster, REVAi, Renault Fluence ZE, Buddy, Mitsubishi i MiEV, Tazzari Zero, Nissan Leaf, Smart ED, Wheego Whip LiFe, electric Mia, and BYD e6.
The Mitsubishi i-MiEV, with global sales of over 17,000 units (as of October 2011), is the world's second best-selling electric car. Engine configuration: Wankel or piston engine (V, inline, flat). History of the Automobile: origin to 1900. Hergé. Curious Expeditions. 2 July 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-04-03. Retrieved 2008-03-18. - Note that the vehicle pictured is the 20th century diecast model made by Brumm, of a later vehicle, not a model based on Verbiest's plans. Setright, LJK (2004). Drive On!: A Social History of the Motor Car. Kenworthy, JR (2004). "Transport Energy Use and Greenhouse Emissions in Urban Passenger Transport Systems" (PDF). Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy. World Health Organization, Europe. Social Exclusion Unit, Office of the Prime Minister (UK). Xin (2022-07-18). "knowing the lubrication system understanding, function and how it works". Jeff Rubin (2 March 2009). "Wrong Turns" (PDF). Dillard, Ted (2014-09-23). "Rare Look Inside A Tesla Model S Battery Pack". David B. Sandalow, ed. 2009). Plug-In Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington? The Brookings Institution. p. Damon Lavrinc (2011-11-30). "Nissan sells 20,000 Leafs worldwide, 10,000 in US by end of the year". Scott Doggett (2011-11-18). "Mitsubishi EV Earns Top EPA MPG Rank".
Scott Shelly ( Hangul:셸리 ) is one of the female protagonists in the webtoon. She begins a one-sided relationship with Jay at the start of the series but as the story progress they have a mutual crush on each other and as of chapter 378 they are in a relationship. Shelly is the only female member of the Humming Bird Crew. Because she stayed at England before coming to Korea her personality is perceived as very headstrong. She does not like it when people talk badly about her friends, especially Jay. Shelly also has a lot of stamina and strength, she can keep up with the group's pace when racing and can actually send people flying with her punch (Although that may be for comedic reasons) but never got into the street fights with the guys of the crew. When she was hit on in her first appearance on the series she refused with a lot of sass. Mia described her as someone who can confidently express her thoughts and feelings. Although her words are harsh, it is because she never sugar coated her words with her friends. And with Jay, Shelly is very clingy and flirtatious. She has very foreign features: pale skin, her eyes actually look more mint green in color than blue, blond wavy hair. It is known later in the series that she has a tattoo in the side of her arm near the wrist that reads out "temet nosce" or "Know Thyself". At school she wears her uniform usually without the red vest and both wears the skirt and pants.