Who Saved Karura Forest

Karura Forest is an urban forest in Nairobi, the capital of Kenya. Karura Forest is 1,041 ha (2,570 acres) consisting of three parts separated by Limuru and Kiambu roads. The large middle portion is ca. 710 ha (1,750 acres); the Sigria salient to the west is ca. 250 ha (620 acres). The portion to the east of Kiambu road has been allocated to special national priorities. As of mid-2016, 36% of the forest contains indigenous upland forest tree species. The forest is home to some 200 species of bird as well as suni, Harveys Duiker, bushbucks, bush pigs, genets, civets, honey badgers, bush babies, porcupines, Syke's monkeys, bush squirrels, hares, fruit bats, and various reptiles and butterflies. Karura now has over 50 km of trails for visitors to walk, run or bike. Due to its proximity to a growing city, there have been plans to reduce the forest in favor of housing and other development. However, these plans have been controversial with conservationists.

In the late 1990s there were housing projects that would have excised portions of the forest. Conservationists, led by Wangari Maathai, the leader of the Green Belt Movement who later became a Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, carried out a much publicized campaign for saving the forest. Karura Forest became also a symbol against controversial land grabbings in Kenya. Karura Forest has an area of ​​1 063.0 ha, making it the largest of three main gazetted forest in Nairobi. The others are Ngong Forest and Oloolua Forest. The centrally located Nairobi Arboretum is much smaller. Karura Forest is located north of central Nairobi and is bordered by the suburbs of Muthaiga, Gigiri, Runda, Ridgeways, Mathare North, Peponi and New Muthaiga. The western part of the forest is also known as Sigiria Forest. The area north of central Nairobi forms a drainage basin and was once heavily forested, but exists today only as patches like Karura Forest and City Park. The forest is cut by Thigirie, Getathuru, Rui Ruaka and Karura Rivers, all tributaries of Nairobi River. Features in the forest include a waterfall, bamboo forest, marshland, Mau Mau caves and an old church. The United Nations Office at Nairobi and UNEP headquarters are located adjacent to the forest.

39;s office, making it difficult to trace the individuals behind these companies.

The Karura Forest Product Research Center is also located there. Wildlife in the forest includes Monkey species (including the recently re-introduced Colobus Monkeys), bush baby, bushbuck, bush pig, porcupine, duiker, genet, dik dik, African civet and East African epauletted fruit bat. Plant species typical to the forest include Olea europaea (var. Croton megalocarpus, Warburgia ugandensis, Brachyleana huillensis and the Uvaridendron anisatum. Between 1994 and 1998 a total of 564.14 hectares of the forest were secretly allocated to 64 different companies for housing projects. Around 1995 there were plans to build a housing estate in the forest, but opposition by local residents led to temporary shelving of the plans. The projects revitalized again in September 1998, when the Forest Department was issued a quit notice by private developers. The clearing of the forest started igniting fierce protests by environmentalists and others concerned. On 7 October 1998 the construction site was invaded by demonstrators, including 12 opposition MP's. The protest turned violent and bulldozers and other machinery used to clear the forest was destroyed worth more than 80 million Ksh ($2 US million). Minister for Lands and Settlements Noah Katana Ngala released a list of companies who had been allocated land in Karura Forest in November 1998. However, the records of those companies were not found at Registrar General's office, making it difficult to trace the individuals behind these companies. On 8 January 1999 when a group of women led by Wangari Maathai were holding a demonstration by planting trees near the forest, a large group of security guards attacked them. Several of them were injured, including Maathai who was taken to Nairobi Hospital.

The police were reluctant to investigate the incident. However, the Attorney-General Amos Wako apologised to Maathai and promised an inquiry on the incident. Klaus Töpfer, the executive director of UNEP, was warned that the organization may move its headquarters out of Kenya if the forest faces destruction. The UN Secretary General Kofi Annan also condemned the attack on Maathai. Kenyan President Daniel arap Moi criticized the protesters and asked the Church not to involve itself with the saga. Minister for Natural Resources Francis Lotodo defended the projects in January 1999 stating that Nairobi as a growing city needed space for development. University of Nairobi students held several demonstrations for preservation of the forest. On 20 January 1999 several students were injured when they clashed with police. The University of Nairobi was temporarily closed following the protests, and all students were ordered to leave the campus. Opposition MP's James Orengo (Ford-Kenya), David Mwenje (DP) and Njehu Gatabaki (SDP) were charged in court for attending student protests. Eventually housing plans were taken down in lack of public support, but land allocations still stood in place. In 2003 the NARC government led by Mwai Kibaki replaced the long-standing Moi-led KANU-government. In 2003 the Minister of Environment Newton Kulundu denied the American investor Raymond Chisholm a permit to construct a hotel in the forest. There was a project by Kenya Forest Service, UNEP and Red Cross Kenya in 2008 to cut down eucalyptus and blue gum trees in parts of the forest and plant indigenous species in their place. In 2009 it was reported that part of the forest had been allocated to the National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA).

Muggings, robbery and violence were common.

This plan was also opposed by Wangari Maathai and the Green Belt Movement, who stated that the NEMA should be protecting, not destructing the forest. The Nairobi Northern Bypass road, constructed in 2009, passes through a wetland that contributes to one of the five Karura Forest water courses, thus posing a threat to the forest. Karura Forest has a reputation as a dangerous spot. Muggings, robbery and violence were common. At one point, said Kenya Forest Service (KFS) Head of the Nairobi Conservancy, Charity Munyasia, they were discovering one dead body there per fortnight, on average. The Chief Forester was actually mugged in his own forest. The new Kenya Forests Act (2005) is also provided for the establishment of Community Forest Associations (CFA). In 2009 an initiative was thus formed under the name 'Friends of Karura Forest Community Forest Association'. Recognising the growing threats to Karura from uncontrolled development the neighboring Muthaiga and Gigiri Residents Associations begin discussions in early 2009 to form a Community Forest Association for Karura.

A letter of intent circulated to northern Nairobi neighborhoods residents, heads of agencies and VIPs under joint signature of KFS and the Muthaiga Residents' Association (MRA). A stakeholders' Working Committee was formed to steer the process, and, in order to raise awareness, it organized a media event in the form of the opening of Karura's 'Family Trail' on 16 May 2009 with the Hon. Noah Wekesa, Minister for Forestry and Wildlife, president. Hundreds of stakeholders participated in walking the length of the trail. On 25 May 2009 KFS wrote a letter to the Registrar of Societies expressing No Objection to the registration of the new CFA. Between April and July 2009 FKF-CFA office-bearers completed the required vetting processes with the Criminal Investigation Division and Registrar of Societies. The FKF-KFS joint management plans were drafted by the Working Committee. On 1 October 2009 the Registrar of Societies signed the Certificate of Registration for the Friends of Karura Community Forest Association. At the First FKF Annual General Meeting on 21 April 2010 Alice Macaire became FKF's first elected chairperson. The nascent and unique parastatal-stakeholder partnership took its first major management decision on 25 Feb 2010 when FKS and FKF signed an MOU concerning installation and operation of an electric fence to fully secure the forest perimeter. FKF raised the necessary funds and the fence was completed in September. In December 2010 the Strategic Management Plan signed by KFS Director D. K, Mbugua, and on 26-27 February 2011 there was a Grand Opening Ceremony in the forest to celebrate a Karura that was now 'Secure, Safe & Serene' and open for visitors.

An electric fence has been built around the forest for security reasons.

At the second FKF Annual General Meeting on 19 April 2011. Prof. Karanja Njoroge, who had served as Wangari Maathai's deputy at the GreenBelt Movement, was elected to chairmanship of FKF. Wangari Maathai and Alice Macaire were anointed as honorary Patrons of the Community Forest Association. Cristina Boelcke-Croze continued as vice-chair along with Judge Sharad Rao. From literally zero visitors in 2009, the forest is now welcoming an average of 16,000 visitors a month, 70% of whom are Kenyan citizens. In 2015 there were some 600,000 visitors. Karura Forest is now developed as a visitor's attraction for both local and international, with more than 16,000 entries per month. This includes creation of some 50 km of nature trails for walking, running and biking. An electric fence has been built around the forest for security reasons. Although 70% of Karura's visitors are Kenyan citizens, there is a growing appreciation by an international clientele as witnessed by Karura having received a TripAdvisor Certificate of Excellence for two years running (2014-15) and being listed as No. 4 out of 101 Things To Do in Nairobi. The Karura Forest Environmental Education Trust (KFEET) was formed in 2010, and launched by then Minister for Forestry and Wildlife Noah Wekesa. KFEET manages an environmental education center located in Karura Forest and facilitating access to thousands of Kenyan school children. RW Moss: Nairobi AZ Map. Donald B. Freeman: A city of farmers: informal urban agriculture in the open spaces of Nairobi, Kenya. Liz Wily & Sue Mbaya: Land, people, and forests in eastern and southern Africa at the beginning of the 21st century: the impact of land relations on the role of communities in forest future. Landscape conservation law: present trends and perspectives in international and comparative law : proceedings of a colloquium commemorating the 50th anniversary of IUCN, The World Conservation Union, 30 October 1998, Palais du Luxembourg, Paris. Chima Jacob Korieh: Gendering global transformations: gender, culture, race, and identity. Kenya Museum Society - Karura Forest Rejuvenated.

And with Jay, Shelly is very clingy and flirtatious.

Scott Shelly ( Hangul:셸리 ) is one of the female protagonists in the webtoon. She begins a one-sided relationship with Jay at the start of the series but as the story progress they have a mutual crush on each other and as of chapter 378 they are in a relationship. Shelly is the only female member of the Humming Bird Crew. Because she stayed at England before coming to Korea her personality is perceived as very headstrong. She does not like it when people talk badly about her friends, especially Jay. Shelly also has a lot of stamina and strength, she can keep up with the group's pace when racing and can actually send people flying with her punch (Although that may be for comedic reasons) but never got into the street fights with the guys of the crew. When she was hit on in her first appearance on the series she refused with a lot of sass. Mia described her as someone who can confidently express her thoughts and feelings. Although her words are harsh, it is because she never sugar coated her words with her friends. And with Jay, Shelly is very clingy and flirtatious. She has very foreign features: pale skin, her eyes actually look more mint green in color than blue, blond wavy hair. It is known later in the series that she has a tattoo in the side of her arm near the wrist that reads out "temet nosce" or "Know Thyself". At school she wears her uniform usually without the red vest and both wears the skirt and pants.

She is often seen wearing high-end brand clothing, but also occasionally wearing street wear and tomboyish clothes. When riding her bike, she usually wears a jacket and helmet with the same color as her eyes or the Hummingbird crew's hood. She is tall, with long thin legs, a small waist and a bigger bust. Not much is known about Shelly, but it is established that she is from England and she requested to transfer to Sunny High School because of Jay. It was told in an early episode (Ep. 27) that she will be in Korea for one semester. Shelly is the granddaughter of Sunny High School's principal, Nick. When Shelly was a kid, she didn't want to get married and promised Nick that she will just live with him forever, which caused Nick to think that Shelly is not interested to guys until she got interested in Jay. That also caused the over protectiveness of her grandfather. Jay saw what happened and chased the thieves to get her purse back. She refused on taking him to the hospital but Jay refused. She picked up his student ID that had fallen to the ground and, motivated by her encounter with Jay, called her grandfather, asking him to let her attend Sunny High School. Her second meeting with Jay was in their classroom. She kissed him out of the blue and the gossip that Shelly and Jay were in a relationship quickly spread around the school.

When Jay, Dom and Minu got suspended, Shelly visited them and scolded Dom and Minu badly about how Jay got caught with their actions. Jay got pissed and told her to screw off, she ended up crying and running away. When Jay was about to say sorry, he got a pink rose from Minu, saying that he should give it to her. He couldn't and Shelly went on saying that she'll forgive him if he became her boyfriend for a week and Jay agreed. She joined Hummingbird as the only female on the team, she continued to flirt with Jay and when Jay was teaching Mia how to ride a bike, she kept on intervening and wanting him to teach her even though she knows how. On a special episode, Shelly was seen riding a bike in Jay's neighborhood. Minu and Kay noticed her, Kay was thinking of who might Shelly go out with and ended up being shocked that it was his brother. In the last scene, Jay and Shelly are resting after riding their bike together, and she comments that Jay suits biking more than studying. The Preliminaries for the League of Street has started, only Dom and Jay were able to race at the first two rounds. After that, they found out that Jay's birthday was near and planned to celebrate it. She didn't showed up at school on his birthday because she was the one who prepared the gift that they got for him.

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