Scientists suspect it might be raining diamonds on Neptune and Uranus. Evidence of opal on Mars hints at a watery past. Outside our solar system, there may be rubies and sapphire too. But the gems that form within Earth still might be the most dazzling. In 2012, scientists announced they'd found a planet, 55 Cancri e, that was made out of diamond. The idea was based on estimates of the planet's size and density. Soon after their work was published, however, other research suggested they'd been wrong. Roger Clark, a senior scientist at the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson, explains that to come to these kinds of conclusions, scientists work backward, starting with the size and mass of a planet. They use that information to estimate density, and then work to determine what kind of materials could produce that density. While the entire planet of 55 Cancri e may not be made of diamond, there is good reason to believe that diamonds do exist outside of Earth, throughout the universe, along with other precious stones like opal, rubies, and sapphire. "We can form all sorts of gemstones potentially in space, as long as you have the right chemistry in the right temperature and conditions," says Wendy Mao, a professor of geological sciences at Stanford University. "Diamonds are just pure carbon," says Mao. And carbon is plentiful in the universe.
In 1987, scientists found nanodiamonds - tiny microscopic pieces of diamonds - in meteorites.
However, diamonds don't just spontaneously form anywhere there's carbon; a particular set of circumstances must exist. Along with extremely high temperatures and pressures, diamonds form in environments that lack oxygen. Diamonds shouldn't even really exist on the Earth's surface. "It's not stable," explains Mao, adding that a pure diamond would not survive a house fire because the heat would help it react with oxygen in the atmosphere. In 1987, scientists found nanodiamonds - tiny microscopic pieces of diamonds - in meteorites. Inside those nanodiamonds, researchers have since found trapped gases and minerals that give clues about when and where they formed. For example, ureilite meteorites - a type of meteorite with a high percentage of carbon, named for Novy Urey, a village hit by a meteor in 1886 - contain diamonds. In those diamonds, researchers found materials that suggested that the gems were created inside a planetary body as old as the solar system.
However, some scientists still dispute this, and suggest these diamonds could be the results of powerful collisions between smaller objects. Researchers also suspect that it could be "raining diamonds" on Neptune and Uranus. The scientists conducted experiments here on Earth mimicking the temperatures and pressures on these planets and found that they are intense enough to form diamonds. Then, because the diamonds are heavier than the environments surrounding them, they'd sink into the planet - a little like rain. The sinking diamonds generate friction, which the researchers say may help explain why these icy planets generate more heat than we would expect. For opal to form, there has to be water and heating events such as volcanic eruptions or major impacts - both of which Clark's team knew existed on Mars. Among the astronomical community, there's a joke about "NASA's monthly announcement of the discovery of water on Mars," he says.
And in 2008, in one of those small views, his team found opaline silica, the building block of opal.
"Every infrared spectrum that's ever been taken of Mars from all the spacecraft that has gone - every single location shows water. An infrared spectrum is a measurement of how much infrared light a particular material absorbs. The spectrum, a horizontal line with a series of spikes similar to a heart rate measurement, allows scientists to identify different compounds, like minerals. But researchers can't just measure the spectrum of an entire planet. They can only use the technology to look at one very small region at a time. "We only have postage-stamp views of small locations to get the really fine details," says Clark. And in 2008, in one of those small views, his team found opaline silica, the building block of opal. Because much of the planet is covered in dust storms, he says, "it's hard to find locations where other things are exposed, where you can start to really understand the planet's history. So finding locations where we can see other minerals is always exciting, " even if it was expected. Researchers have even predicted that distant planets in other solar systems could be filled with gems like ruby and sapphire based on their size and proximity to the star at the center of their systems. Scientists have found evidence of cubic zirconia in moon rocks, showing that the universe not only holds diamonds, but its own fire-safe knock-offs. Space could be absolutely shimmering with precious stones, though Mao emphasizes that they probably aren't quite like the ones in earthlings' jewelry boxes.
In 2019, the manga won the award for the shnen category at the 43rd annual Kodansha Manga Awards.
The Quintessential Quintuplets (Japanese:, Hepburn: Go-Tōbun no Hanayome, lit. Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Negi Haruba. It was serialized in Kodansha's Weekly Shōnen Magazine from August 2017 to February 2020, with its chapters collected into fourteen tankōbon volumes. The series follows the daily life of a high school student Futaro Uesugi, who is hired as a private tutor for a group of identical quintuplets: Ichika, Nino, Miku, Yotsuba, and Itsuki Nakano. At the very beginning of the story, it is shown that the events are being told in a flashback, while an adult Futaro prepares to marry one of the Nakano Quintuplets whose identity is only revealed near the end of the series. under the Kodansha Comics imprint. The anime series is licensed in North America under a Crunchyroll-Funimation partnership. An anime television series adaptation produced by Tezuka Productions aired from January to March 2019 on TBS and other channels. The series is a commercial success, being the 5th best-selling manga in 2019, and the 3rd best-selling manga in the first half of 2020 in Japan. In 2019, the manga won the award for the shnen category at the 43rd annual Kodansha Manga Awards. High school student Futaro Uesugi is an academically gifted student that leads a difficult life-his mother has died, he has no friends, and on top of all that, his father has incurred a large amount of debt. An opportunity presents itself when the rich Nakano family transfers to his school.
Futaro is promptly hired as a highly paid tutor. However, much to Futaro's dismay, he discovers that his five charges-identical quintuplet sisters of varied personalities-have no interest in studying at all and have abysmal grades. Some of the quintuplets are against having Futaro, whom they view as a stranger, in their apartment, but Futaro's diligent tenacity gradually convinces those girls to accept him and to improve their grades. Throughout the series, Futaro develops special relationships with each of the quintuplets. Through a flashforward, it is revealed that he eventually marries one of them, but her true identity is only revealed near the end of the series. The idea of "a group of quintuplets falling in love with the same person" existed even before the serialization of Haruba's previous work, Karma of Purgatory (2014-2015), but was very simple at that time. The idea was denied by his editor-in-charge. A year after, after the end of Karma of Purgatory, he discussed with his editor-in-charge what to serialize next.
Among the few ideas being come up with, the "quintuplets" idea was included again, which was accepted by the editor this time. After failures in two to three serialization committees, finally, it was decided to have a one-shot manga published first. The one-shot received positive reviews and therefore went on to serialization. It was decided the protagonist should be quintuplets at the very beginning. When later the idea of quadruplets and sextuplets was raised, it was rejected very quickly, around 30 seconds. Haruba said it might be a reference to Super Sentai when he came up with this idea. Similar to Super Sentai, Ichika (yellow), Nino (black), Miku (blue), Yotsuba (green), and Itsuki (red) are all represented by a color. The design of the quintuplets started from his favorite existing female characters from "some slice-of-life works only with girls", around 15 to 20 of them. The idea of adding numbers in their names was after the design was almost confirmed.
The hair color of the Nakano quintuplets is different when being colored, which was suggested by Haruba himself, such that they are more distinguishable from each other. The hair color of the bride in the flashforward is, therefore, a colour-in-between. The flashforward showing that Futaro will eventually marry only one of the Nakano quintuplets was added in order to eliminate the possibility of Futaro marrying all five of them. It was also decided that all quintuplets would have negative feelings towards Futaro from the beginning, because Haruba wanted to write how their relationships improved from hate to love in the story, except Yotsuba, who acts as Futaro's guide for the development of the story. While it is often the norm for harem romantic comedy manga to have sexualized depictions of characters, Haruba has said that he tried to avoid this to some extent after Vol. In his opinion, showing panties which are being worn, ieTo keep the characters interesting, the sexy scenes were intended by him to be ambiguous but not straightforward, leading to readers' imagination. The swimsuit appearance of the Nakanos was finally revealed in Ep.
92 as Haruba thought an episode of swimsuits should exist before finishing the story. The Quintessential Quintuplets is written and illustrated by Negi Haruba. Before the serialization, a one-shot manga of the same name had been published in 2017 issue 8 of Kodansha's Weekly Shōnen Magazine on August 9, 2017, and received positive comments. On December 4, 2019, Haruba announced that the series would end on its 14th tankōbon volume. The series finished on February 19, 2020, with a total of 122 chapters. The series has been published in English by Kodansha USA under their Kodansha Comics imprint digitally since June 28, 2018, with a line of physical releases beginning publication on January 1, 2019. By August 2020 and July 2021 respectively, all fourteen volumes have been published digitally and physically. In October 2017, a television commercial for the manga was released where Ayane Sakura voiced all five girls. The series is directed by Satoshi Kuwabara and written by Keiichirō chi, featuring animation by Tezuka Productions, character designs by Michinosuke Nakamura and Gagakuga, and music by Natsumi Tabuchi, Hanae Nakamura, and Miki Sakurai. The series aired from January 10 to March 28, 2019 on the TBS, SUN, and BS-TBS channels. The series ran for 12 episodes. Crunchyroll streamed the series with Funimation providing the English dub as it airs. Although Tezuka Productions was the main animation studio behind the series, TBS producer Junichirou Tanaka stated that he asked for help from Shaft president Mitsutoshi Kubota for assistance in producing the series' 11th episode. It was ultimately decided that the studio would be outsourced to for the entire episode save for the episode's storyboards, which were drawn by series director Satoshi Kuwabara; however, all other animation, coloring, and compositing aspects of the episode were produced entirely at Shaft.