11, 81 He was a struggle figure who played an important role in liberating the Indonesian people from Dutch colonial rule. 26-32 He was the Proclaimer of Indonesian Independence (together with Mohammad Hatta) on August 17, 1945. Soekarno was the first to coin the concept of Pancasila as the basis of the Indonesian state and he himself named it. Soekarno signed the controversial March 11, 1966 (Supersemar) Order, the contents of which - based on the version issued by the Army Headquarters - assigned Lieutenant General Suharto to secure and maintain the security of the state and the presidential institution. Supersemar became the basis for Lieutenant General Suharto to dissolve the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) and replace its members who sat in parliament. After his accountability was rejected by the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly (MPRS) at the fourth general assembly in 1967, Sukarno was dismissed from his position as president at the MPRS Special Session in the same year and Suharto replaced him as acting President of the Republic of Indonesia. Soekarno was born in Peneleh, Surabaya, East Java with the name Kusno (Koesno) which was given to him by his parents. However, because he was often sick, when he was eleven his name was changed to Soekarno by his father. 35-36 The name is taken from a warlord in the story of Bharata Yudha, namely Karna. The name "Karna" becomes "Karno" because in Javanese the letter "a" changes to "o" while the prefix "su" means "good".
39;s name is sometimes written as Achmed Soekarno.
Later when he became president, the spelling of Soekarno's name was changed by himself to Sukarno because according to him the name used the colonial spelling (Dutch). 32 He still uses Soekarno's name in his signature because the signature is the signature contained in the Text of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence which cannot be changed, besides it is not easy to change the signature after 50 years of age. 32 A familiar name for Soekarno is Bung Karno. In some Western countries, Soekarno's name is sometimes written as Achmed Soekarno. Indonesia, especially Javanese names, which only use one name or do not have a family name. Soekarno mentioned that he got the name Achmed when he performed the pilgrimage. In several other versions, it is stated that the giving of the name Achmed in front of Soekarno's name was carried out by Muslim diplomats from Indonesia who were on overseas missions in an effort to gain recognition of the sovereignty of the Indonesian state by Arab countries. Indonesia is not unusual to have a name consisting of one word. The two met when Raden Soekemi, a teacher, was placed at the Indigenous Elementary School in Singaraja, Bali. Nyoman Rai is a descendant of nobility from Bali and is Hindu, while Raden Soekemi himself is Muslim. They had a daughter named Sukarmini before Soekarno was born.
4-6, 247-251 As a child Soekarno lived with his grandfather, Raden Hardjokromo in Tulung Agung, East Java. He attended school for the first time in Tulung Agung until finally he moved to Mojokerto, following his parents who were assigned to the city. In Mojokerto, his father sent Sukarno to the Eerste Inlandse School, the school where he worked. Then in June 1911 Soekarno was transferred to the Europeesche Lagere School (ELS) to make it easier for him to be accepted at the Hogere Burger School (HBS). In 1915, Soekarno had completed his education at ELS and successfully continued to HBS in Surabaya, East Java. He was accepted at HBS with the help of a friend of his father's named HOS Tjokroaminoto and even gave Soekarno a place to live in his boarding house. In Surabaya, Sukarno met many leaders of the Sarekat Islam, the organization Tjokroaminoto led at the time, such as Alimin, Musso, Darsono, Haji Agus Salim, and Abdul Muis. Soekarno was then active in the activities of the youth organization Tri Koro Dharmo which was formed as an organization of Budi Utomo.
In addition, Soekarno was also active in writing for the daily "Oetoesan Indies" led by Tjokroaminoto. Soekarno was declared to have passed the engineer's exam on May 25, 1926 and on the 6th Anniversary of TH Bandung on July 3, 1926 he graduated with eighteen other engineers. 37 Prof. Jacob Clay as the head of the faculty at the time stated "It was especially important for us because there were 3 Javanese engineers". Besides that, there was another person from Minahasa, namely Johannes Alexander Henricus Ondang. While in Bandung, Soekarno lived at the residence of Haji Sanusi, who was a member of the Sarekat Islam and a close friend of Tjokroaminoto. There he interacted with Ki Hajar Dewantara, Tjipto Mangunkusumo, and Dr. Douwes Dekker, who at that time was the leader of the National Indische Partij organization. Ir. Soekarno in 1926 founded an engineering bureau with Ir. Anwari, a lot of work on building design. Furthermore, together with Ir. Rooseno also designed and built houses and other types of buildings. When exiled in Bengkulu, he took the time to design several houses and completely renovate the Jami' mosque in the middle of the city. During his tenure as president, there were several architectural works that were influenced or initiated by Soekarno. Also a marathon trip from May to July in 1956 to the countries of the United States, Canada, Italy, West Germany, and Switzerland. Making Soekarno's natural horizons richer in managing Indonesia holistically and presenting it as a newly independent country. Soekarno targeted Jakarta as the face (face) of Indonesia in relation to several international-scale activities held in the city, but also planned a city from the start which was expected to be the center of government in the future. Some of the works were influenced by Soekarno or on his orders and coordination with several architects such as Frederich Silaban and RM
In July 1932, Sukarno joined the Indonesian Party (Partindo), which was a splinter from the PNI.
Soedarsono, assisted by several junior architects for visualization. Several architectural designs were also made through competitions. In 1955 Ir. Soekarno made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and as an architect, Soekarno was moved to contribute architectural ideas to the government of Saudi Arabia to make a building for performing sa'i into two lanes in a two-story building. Soekarno became famous for the first time when he became a member of Jong Java Surabaya branch in 1915. For Soekarno, the Java-centric nature of the organization and only thought about culture was a challenge in itself. In the annual plenary meeting held by Jong Java Surabaya branch, Soekarno shocked the session by making a speech using the Javanese ngoko (rough) language. A month later he sparked a heated debate by suggesting that the Jong Java newspaper should be published in Malay only, and not in Dutch. Bandung which is the result of inspiration from the Indonesische Study Club by Dr. Soekarno's activities in the PNI caused him to be arrested by the Dutch on December 29, 1929 in Yogyakarta and the next day he was transferred to Bandung, to be thrown into the Banceuy Prison. In July 1932, Sukarno joined the Indonesian Party (Partindo), which was a splinter from the PNI. Sukarno was again arrested in August 1933, and exiled to Flores.
This can be seen in Movement 3A with its characters Shimizu and Mr. Shamsuddin were less popular.
Here, Sukarno was almost forgotten by national figures. But his spirit is still burning as implied in every letter to an Islamic Unity Teacher named Ahmad Hasan. At the beginning of the Japanese colonial period (1942-1945), the Japanese government did not pay attention to the figures of the Indonesian movement, especially to "secure" their presence in Indonesia. This can be seen in Movement 3A with its characters Shimizu and Mr. Shamsuddin were less popular. But in the end, the Japanese occupation government paid attention to and at the same time used Indonesian figures such as Soekarno, Mohammad Hatta, and others in every organization and institution to attract the hearts of the Indonesian population. Mentioned in various organizations such as Jawa Hokokai, Center for People's Power (Putera), BPUPKI and PPKI, figures such as Soekarno, Hatta, Ki Hajar Dewantara, KHMas Mansyur, and others were mentioned and looked very active. And finally national figures worked with the Japanese occupation government to achieve Indonesian independence, although there were also underground movements such as Sutan Syahrir and Amir Sjarifuddin because they considered Japan to be a dangerous fascist. President Soekarno himself, during his opening speech before reading the text of the proclamation of independence, said that even though we were actually working with Japan, we actually believed and believed and relied on our own strength.
He was active in efforts to prepare for Indonesian independence, including formulating Pancasila, the 1945 Constitution, and the basic principles of the Indonesian government, including formulating the text of the proclamation of Independence. He was persuaded to leave for Rengasdengklok. In 1943, Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo invited Indonesian figures namely Soekarno, Mohammad Hatta, and Ki Bagoes Hadikoesoemo to Japan and was received directly by Emperor Hirohito. Even the emperor gave the imperial star (Ratna Suci) to the three Indonesian figures. The awarding of the Stars surprised the Japanese occupation government, because it meant that the three Indonesian figures were considered the family of the Japanese Emperor himself. In August 1945, he was invited by Marshal Terauchi, the head of the Army for Southeast Asia in Dalat, Vietnam, who later stated that the proclamation of Indonesian independence was the business of the Indonesian people themselves. However, his involvement in Japanese-established organizational bodies made Soekarno accused by the Dutch of cooperating with the Japanese, including in the romusha case. Soekarno together with national figures began to prepare for the proclamation of the independence of the Republic of Indonesia. After meeting Marshal Terauchi in Dalat, Vietnam, the Rengasdengklok Incident occurred on August 16, 1945; Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta were persuaded by the youths to move away to the Rengasdengklok Defender of the Homeland (PETA) troop dormitory. The youth figures who persuaded included Soekarni, Wikana, Singgih and Chairul Saleh. The youths demanded that Soekarno and Hatta immediately proclaim Indonesia's independence, because in Indonesia there was a power vacuum.
This was because the Japanese had surrendered and the Allied forces had not yet arrived. However, Soekarno, Hatta and other prominent figures refused on the grounds that they were waiting for clarity regarding the Japanese surrender. Another reason that developed is that Soekarno set the right moment for Indonesia's independence, namely the election of August 17, 1945 when it coincided with the month of Ramadan, the Muslim holy month which is believed to be the month of the first revelation of the Muslims to the Prophet Muhammad, namely the Qur'an. On August 18, 1945, Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta were appointed by PPKI as President and Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia. On August 29, 1945 the appointments to become president and vice president were confirmed by KNIP. On September 19, 1945 Soekarno's authority was able to resolve without bloodshed the Ikada Field incident where 200,000 people of Jakarta would clash with Japanese troops who were still fully armed. At the arrival of the Allies (AFNEI) led by Lt. Sir Phillip Christison, Christison finally recognized Indonesia's de facto sovereignty after holding a meeting with President Soekarno. President Soekarno also tried to resolve the crisis in Surabaya. However, due to the provocation launched by the NICA (Dutch) troops who rode the Allies (under Britain), the 10 November 1945 incident in Surabaya exploded and the death of Brigadier General AWS Mallaby. Due to many provocations in Jakarta at that time, President Soekarno finally moved the capital city of the Republic of Indonesia from Jakarta to Yogyakarta. Followed by the vice president and other high-ranking state officials. The position of President Soekarno according to the 1945 Constitution is the position of the President as head of government and head of state (presidential/single executive).