Each year, the Environmental Working Group (EWG) publishes its Dirty Dozen list, which ranks the 12 pieces of produce that contain the highest amounts of pesticide residues. This year, one of the dirtiest fruits and vegetables turns out to be kale, occupying the third spot on the EWG's list of most contaminated. Strawberries top the list, followed by spinach. This year, the tests showed that more than 92% of conventionally grown kale samples harbored at least two pesticide residues. The USDA and FDA alternate testing among nearly four dozen fruits and vegetables every year and do not test the same ones annually. Nor do the agencies look for the same pesticides in each round of tests. The last time kale was tested was in 2009, when it ranked eighth on the EWG's Dirty Dozen list. "The fact that the agencies don't test each produce item every year is problematic," says Nneka Leiba, director of healthy living science at EWG.
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"And more importantly, the fact that the USDA and FDA aren't testing for all the pesticides used in fruits and vegetables is a huge problem." The last time kale was tested, for example, it contained residues of imidacloprid, a nicotine substitute that is toxic to many insects, but the pesticide was not included in the most recent testing. The chemical is considered non-toxic to people but can cause breathing and intestinal problems if inhaled in excessive quantities. Get our Health Newsletter. Sign up to receive the latest health and science news, plus answers to wellness questions and expert tips. Kale and spinach contained 10% to 80% more pesticide residues by weight than any other fruit or vegetable. Alexis Temkin, a toxicologist at EWG, says these crops may be heavily contaminated because they grow close to the ground, where they are more likely to be exposed to bugs - and therefore to be targets for pesticides. Strawberries, another highly contaminated fruit, also grow low to the ground. The delicate leaves of kale and spinach also make them good candidates for spraying, since any infestation can damage the leaves and decrease the chances of being sold. EWG highlights pesticide residues because some studies have linked exposure to the chemicals to health issues, including problems with fertility and brain development, and even cancer. The latest report on kale found traces of Dacthal, which the Environmental Protection Agency classified as a possible human carcinogen.
The findings make the case for choosing organically grown fruits and vegetables, since research has shown that organic produce has fewer pesticides residues than conventional. If organic options are inaccessible or too expensive, you may want to consider choosing produce with lower amounts of pesticide residues. The EWG also lists the least contaminated fruits and vegetables - called the Clean Fifteen - and they include mostly produce with protective rinds or peels such as avocados, pineapples, sweet corn and eggplants. According to the government tests, fewer than 1% of avocados and sweet corn samples contained pesticide residue. Nearly all of the Clean Fifteen products contained less than four pesticides. A representative for the Alliance for Food and Farming, which represents both conventional and organic farmers, says that "residues are so low on conventionally grown produce, if present at all," noting that concerns about pesticides should not dissuade people from consuming fresh fruits and vegetables. EWG experts say there is little evidence that the use of pesticides on fruits and vegetables has declined over the years. In fact, says Temkin, there are hints that more pesticides may be sprayed on crops today. When kale was last tested, there were two types of residues on average detected on samples of the leafy green, and that average more than doubled to 5.5 in the latest report. "We see consistency with the foods continuously on the Dirty Dozen list," she says. While she is encouraged that the USDA and FDA conduct such testing for pesticides, she and others at EWG hope more people become educated about the prevalence of pesticide residue on their food, and the potential dangers of exposure to these chemicals. No national registry of the pesticides used on fruit and vegetable crops exists, so it's not even clear which pesticides growers are spraying. Only California requires pesticides used on crops grown in the state be registered, so that the effects of human exposure can be noted. "Data supports the fact that pesticides can have adverse health effects, especially for children, so reducing pesticide residue in the diet is a good way to reduce exposure and lower those risks," says Temkin.
She does not like it when people talk badly about her friends, especially Jay.
Scott Shelly ( Hangul:셸리 ) is one of the female protagonists in the webtoon. She begins a one-sided relationship with Jay at the start of the series but as the story progress they have a mutual crush on each other and as of chapter 378 they are in a relationship. Shelly is the only female member of the Humming Bird Crew. Because she stayed at England before coming to Korea her personality is perceived as very headstrong. She does not like it when people talk badly about her friends, especially Jay. Shelly also has a lot of stamina and strength, she can keep up with the group's pace when racing and can actually send people flying with her punch (Although that may be for comedic reasons) but never got into the street fights with the guys of the crew. When she was hit on in her first appearance on the series she refused with a lot of sass. Mia described her as someone who can confidently express her thoughts and feelings. Although her words are harsh, it is because she never sugar coated her words with her friends. And with Jay, Shelly is very clingy and flirtatious. She has very foreign features: pale skin, her eyes actually look more mint green in color than blue, blond wavy hair. It is known later in the series that she has a tattoo in the side of her arm near the wrist that reads out "temet nosce" or "Know Thyself". At school she wears her uniform usually without the red vest and both wears the skirt and pants.
Her second meeting with Jay was in their classroom.
She is often seen wearing high-end brand clothing, but also occasionally wearing street wear and tomboyish clothes. When riding her bike, she usually wears a jacket and helmet with the same color as her eyes or the Hummingbird crew's hood. She is tall, with long thin legs, a small waist and a bigger bust. Not much is known about Shelly, but it is established that she is from England and she requested to transfer to Sunny High School because of Jay. It was told in an early episode (Ep. 27) that she will be in Korea for one semester. Shelly is the granddaughter of Sunny High School's principal, Nick. When Shelly was a kid, she didn't want to get married and promised Nick that she will just live with him forever, which caused Nick to think that Shelly is not interested to guys until she got interested in Jay. That also caused the over protectiveness of her grandfather. Jay saw what happened and chased the thieves to get her purse back. She refused on taking him to the hospital but Jay refused. She picked up his student ID that had fallen to the ground and, motivated by her encounter with Jay, called her grandfather, asking him to let her attend Sunny High School. Her second meeting with Jay was in their classroom. She kissed him out of the blue and the gossip that Shelly and Jay were in a relationship quickly spread around the school.
When Jay, Dom and Minu got suspended, Shelly visited them and scolded Dom and Minu badly about how Jay got caught with their actions. Jay got pissed and told her to screw off, she ended up crying and running away. When Jay was about to say sorry, he got a pink rose from Minu, saying that he should give it to her. He couldn't and Shelly went on saying that she'll forgive him if he became her boyfriend for a week and Jay agreed. She joined Hummingbird as the only female on the team, she continued to flirt with Jay and when Jay was teaching Mia how to ride a bike, she kept on intervening and wanting him to teach her even though she knows how. On a special episode, Shelly was seen riding a bike in Jay's neighborhood. Minu and Kay noticed her, Kay was thinking of who might Shelly go out with and ended up being shocked that it was his brother. In the last scene, Jay and Shelly are resting after riding their bike together, and she comments that Jay suits biking more than studying. The Preliminaries for the League of Street has started, only Dom and Jay were able to race at the first two rounds. After that, they found out that Jay's birthday was near and planned to celebrate it. She didn't showed up at school on his birthday because she was the one who prepared the gift that they got for him.
When the boys with the worried June except Jay planned to give Jay a strong alcoholic drink, they didn't expect Shelly to drink it, thinking it was juice. They are dumb-founded and later on, a drunk Shelly came closer to Jay and told her how she was hurt by his actions and proceeding to kiss him the second time. They pulled Shelly of Jay who was already littered with kiss marks. Mia was the one who brought Shelly home, when she was sober enough, Mia asked her if she liked Jay which she answered yes. Mia told her how she envied her for being able to confidently express her thoughts and feelings. Shelly answered that she doesn't understand Mia's concern and told her an advice to start believing in herself more and learning to love herself. This pushed Mia to contact the modeling agency that reached out to her. Before the race, Shelly was being hit on by a member of the Bullet Crew who will be racing against them. The glasses guy kept on hitting on her even when she's denying him. Vinny came to her rescue and punched the guy when he didn't stop.
That led to the glasses guy to take drugs to have a revenge against the Hummingbird Crew. Shelly took the lead until he passes the baton to June. As the race ended, she tried to kiss Jay in his sleep but he moved and she wasn't able to do so. She also took the test with Minu and Dom since, in a sense, she is still a student at Sunny High. When Mia was modeling, a bunch of girls kept on talking about her, gossiping about Mia like dating an old guy or having a sugar daddy to be able to model. Shelly obviously tried to help her. Yuna and Shelly later on went to Mia's house in hopes that they could get her to come to school. On the way riding a bus, a guy came up on her behind and was hitting on her, she shut him down while cursing, very contrasting of her appearance. When Yuna, Mia and Shelly were talking at the park near Mia's house, Shelly started saying something harsh to Mia, although it is a way to actually let Mia see what's happening beyond her room which she choose to lock herself with. Yuna reprimanded Shelly, saying she was too harsh and Mia broke down but then was silent at what Shelly said. After that talk, the three of them came at Heri's bike shop so that Mia can say thank you.
He was ecstatic when she called to say that she was moving to Korea.
After that, she was asked by Minu, Dom and Jay to accompany Mia because she will be more comfortable knowing Shelly was around. She said that she did stay because she was told to but in truth, she came because she is worried, when Mia fought back with her bullies and was slapped, Yuna and Shelly came to her rescue. Shelly even tripped the girl who slapped Mia. And told Yuna and her that it seems like there's nothing to be worried about anymore. Which made Mia smile. Nick (Grandfather) - it is seen that her grandfather is very loving and protective of her. He was ecstatic when she called to say that she was moving to Korea. When she went to her first day of school at Sunny High he was seen outside her classroom being protective and calling her 'his sweet Shelly.' He perceived her as an innocent child who had no interest in boys, that is until she met Jay. This might be because of when Shelly was a child, she said to her grandfather that she will never get married and live forever with him. Shelly's Dad - The only time that Shelly's dad was mentioned was when she asked him to take her bike apart and send it to her in Korea.
Jay - Shelly was Jay's first and second kiss. It was quite clear from the start that Shelly harbors romantic feelings towards him. However, the same cannot be applied to Jay. He kept pushing and disregarding Shelly's flirting. He honestly seemed uncomfortable around her. After a few chapters, their relationship grows and they grew closer. Jay also became flustered after their second kiss, he turned off the television because it showed a kissing scene and he remains blank in school the next day. When Shelly shouted that she will give him another kiss, he dropped the ball that he was holding and looked shocked. When they are fighting a group of guys, Shelly came and Jay instantly shouted at her not to come close and go. There are many instances where it is shown that Jay does not mind when Shelly clings to him. When she talked about going back in Europe, he looked upset. In the third season, the story often focuses on their relationship.