Although polygyny (male harem-keeping) is part of human nature, so is polyandry (female harem-keeping). Ironically, we are both polygynous and polyandrous. Part of our nature inclines us to male-oriented harems, but also - albeit more subtly - to their female-oriented equivalent. When biologists such as myself began doing DNA fingerprinting on animals, many of us were shocked to find cases in which the social partner of even some of the most seemingly monogamous bird species was not necessarily the biological father. And people aren't totally different - although for understandable reasons, the sexual adventuring of women has long been more obscured. Polyandry, unlike polygyny, has only rarely been institutionalized in human societies. Yet women, like men, are also prone to having multiple sexual partners. "unfaithful" women along with their paramours are liable to be severely punished if discovered. This intolerance is easy enough to understand since the evolutionary success (the "fitness") of a male is greatly threatened by any extracurricular sexual activity by "his" mate. If she were inseminated by someone else, the result is a payoff for the lover and a fitness decrement for the cuckolded male. As a result, selection has not only favored a male tendency to accumulate as many females as possible (polygyny), but also an especially high level of sexual jealousy on the part of males generally and of men in particular.
39;s much less true for the fitness of a female who mates with additional males.
This, in turn, pressures polyandry into a degree of secrecy not characteristic of polygyny. Another way of looking at it: Patriarchy pushes polyandry underground, but does not eliminate it. Female harem-keeping - polyandry - goes against some aspects of human and mammalian biology, once again because of the difference between sperm-making (what males do) and egg-making (a female monopoly). Although a male's fitness is enhanced with every female added to his mating prospects, it's much less true for the fitness of a female who mates with additional males. There can indeed be a payoff to females who refrain from sexual exclusivity (actually, there are many such payoffs); however, there are also substantial costs, not least running afoul of the male sexual jealousy just described. Thus, even though females can sometimes enhance their fitness by mating with additional males, they are simultaneously selected to be surreptitious about their sexual adventuring. Hence, polyandry - unlike its overt counterpart, polygyny - is more likely to be covert and hardly ever proclaimed or institutionalized. It also doesn't reveal itself in such blindingly obvious traits as sexual dimorphism in physical size, aggressiveness, or differences in age at sexual maturity, since unlike the situation among males, natural selection does not clearly reward such readily apparent traits among females.
39;s responsibility to repress it) that widows were forbidden to keep male dogs as pets!
Men, in their befuddlement, have had a hard time seeing female sexuality for what it is, and instead consistently either over- or under-estimate it. Thus, women have often been portrayed as either rapacious and insatiable, or as lacking sexual desire altogether. At one time, Talmudic scholars entertained such an overblown estimate of women's sexuality (and society's responsibility to repress it) that widows were forbidden to keep male dogs as pets! In this regard, it is worth mentioning that some anthropologists have recently begun reassessing the received wisdom as to polyandry's rarity. Don't get the wrong idea: it is still extremely unusual, although a new category, "informal polyandry," has been proposed to include societies in which more than one man mates regularly with the same woman. These circumstances are found in a number of societies beyond the standard "classical polyandry" of the Himalayas, Marquesa Islands and parts of the Amazon basin.
39;s ability to deceive her mate as to precisely when she is fertile.
Informal polyandry often co-occurs with a local belief system known as "partible paternity," in which it is thought that if multiple men (albeit rarely more than two or three) have sexual intercourse with a pregnant woman, then they literally share paternity of any offspring that results. Granted that the evidence for human polyandry is more speculative than dispositive, here, Still, is a sample of the arguments. 1. Human beings are unusual among mammals in that females conceal their ovulation. In most species, ovulation is conspicuously advertised, but not us! Indeed, even in the medically sophisticated 21st century, and despite the fact that reproduction is such a key biological process, it is remarkably difficult to ascertain when most women are ovulating. Are You in a Good Marriage or an Invisible Divorce? Does Marriage Actually Make People Happy? There is considerable controversy over why women's ovulation is kept so secret, but one fantasy possibility is that it facilitates a woman's ability to deceive her mate as to precisely when she is fertile. If our great-great-grandmothers sported a dramatic pink cauliflower bottom when they were in season, our great-great-grandfathers could have mated with them at such times, then ignored them while pursuing their own interests.
But by hiding their ovulation, our female ancestors basically made it impossible for our male ancestors to guard them all the time, giving the option for great-great-grandma to sneak copulations with other men, of her choosing, thereby avoiding the ire of her social partner while obtaining whatever benefits such "extra-pair copulations" may have provided. 2. Women are also unusual among mammals in lacking a clear behavioral estrus (or "heat") cycle. As a result, they are able to exert a remarkable degree of control over their choice of a mate, unlike most female mammals, who find themselves helplessly in thrall to their hormones. Absent such choice, polyandry would be indistinguishable from literal promiscuity. The word "promiscuity" carries with it a value judgment, distinctly negative. For biologists, however, it simply means the absence of subsequent bonding between the individuals involved. Some animals appear to be truly promiscuous. For example, many marine organisms - such as barnacles, or oysters - squirt their gametes (eggs and sperm) into the water, usually responding to chemical signals but not engaging in anything like mate choice. But for the most part, promiscuity is rare, since nearly all living things - females in particular -0 are more than a little fussy when it comes to settling on a sexual partner, even as they may end up with many such partners. Females in general and women, in particular, have a substantial interest in making a good mating choice (or choices), if only because biology mandates that such decisions are especially consequential for them, since children are born quite helpless, and their prospect of biological success is enhanced by many factors, notably parental care and attention, in addition to good genes.
And indeed, females in general and women, in particular, are especially fussy when it comes to choosing their sexual partner(s). 3. Recent studies by evolutionary psychologists have shown that during their ovulatory phase, women are attracted to men whose body build and facial features reflect high testosterone and basic good health (that is, good genes), whereas otherwise, they are more influenced by indications of intelligence, kindness, sense of humor, ambition and personal responsibility. In other words, women follow a two-part reproductive strategy consistent with an evolutionary history of polyandry: mate, when possible, with partners carrying those good genes, but associate socially with those offering the prospect of being good collaborators and co-caretakers of children. For some women - those fortunate to pair with men providing both good genes and good parenting/protection prospects - the risks of polyandry (especially, their husband's ire, potential violence and possible abandonment) outweigh the possible benefits. But for others, quite possibly the majority, the opposite can be true. 4. The adaptive significance (evolutionary payoff) of the female orgasm has long been debated.
Among the possible explanations - all consistent with polyandry - is that orgasm enables women to assess the appropriateness of a short-term mating partner as a long-term prospect, while another suggests that female climax is not only rewarding for the woman in question but also reassuring for her partner, providing confidence that she will be sexually faithful … 5. Given that polyandry among animals is predictably correlated with reversals in the "traditional" forms of sexual dimorphism, why hasn't human polyandry, in women being larger and more aggressive than men? For one thing, it isn't possible for men to be larger than women (which, as we've seen is mostly a result of polygyny) and for women to be larger than men (because of polyandry)! And for another, because of the difference between sperm and eggs, the reproductive payoff to polygyny - and its associated male-male competition - is substantially greater than that of polyandry, which in turn has caused polygyny to be the more prominent driver of human sexual evolution. This is not to claim that polygyny (acting mostly on males) is any more real than is polyandry (acting mostly on women), but rather that its effects are more dramatic and more readily identified. 6. Because of the negative fitness consequences for men resulting from polyandry on the part of "their" women, we can expect that men would have been selected to be quite intolerant of it. And indeed, sexual jealousy is a pronounced human trait - also widespread among animals - not uncommonly leading to physical violence. Such a powerful and potentially risky emotional response would not have been generated by evolution if women weren't predisposed, at least on occasion, to behave in a way that is adaptive for them. David P. Barash is an evolutionary biologist and professor of psychology at the University of Washington; his most recent book is Out of Eden: Surprising Consequences of Polygamy.
And with Jay, Shelly is very clingy and flirtatious.
Scott Shelly ( Hangul:셸리 ) is one of the female protagonists in the webtoon. She begins a one-sided relationship with Jay at the start of the series but as the story progress they have a mutual crush on each other and as of chapter 378 they are in a relationship. Shelly is the only female member of the Humming Bird Crew. Because she stayed at England before coming to Korea her personality is perceived as very headstrong. She does not like it when people talk badly about her friends, especially Jay. Shelly also has a lot of stamina and strength, she can keep up with the group's pace when racing and can actually send people flying with her punch (Although that may be for comedic reasons) but never got into the street fights with the guys of the crew. When she was hit on in her first appearance on the series she refused with a lot of sass. Mia described her as someone who can confidently express her thoughts and feelings. Although her words are harsh, it is because she never sugar coated her words with her friends. And with Jay, Shelly is very clingy and flirtatious. She has very foreign features: pale skin, her eyes actually look more mint green in color than blue, blond wavy hair. It is known later in the series that she has a tattoo in the side of her arm near the wrist that reads out "temet nosce" or "Know Thyself". At school she wears her uniform usually without the red vest and both wears the skirt and pants.
It was told in an early episode (Ep.
She is often seen wearing high-end brand clothing, but also occasionally wearing street wear and tomboyish clothes. When riding her bike, she usually wears a jacket and helmet with the same color as her eyes or the Hummingbird crew's hood. She is tall, with long thin legs, a small waist and a bigger bust. Not much is known about Shelly, but it is established that she is from England and she requested to transfer to Sunny High School because of Jay. It was told in an early episode (Ep. 27) that she will be in Korea for one semester. Shelly is the granddaughter of Sunny High School's principal, Nick. When Shelly was a kid, she didn't want to get married and promised Nick that she will just live with him forever, which caused Nick to think that Shelly is not interested to guys until she got interested in Jay. That also caused the over protectiveness of her grandfather. Jay saw what happened and chased the thieves to get her purse back. She refused on taking him to the hospital but Jay refused. She picked up his student ID that had fallen to the ground and, motivated by her encounter with Jay, called her grandfather, asking him to let her attend Sunny High School. Her second meeting with Jay was in their classroom. She kissed him out of the blue and the gossip that Shelly and Jay were in a relationship quickly spread around the school.
When Jay, Dom and Minu got suspended, Shelly visited them and scolded Dom and Minu badly about how Jay got caught with their actions. Jay got pissed and told her to screw off, she ended up crying and running away. When Jay was about to say sorry, he got a pink rose from Minu, saying that he should give it to her. He couldn't and Shelly went on saying that she'll forgive him if he became her boyfriend for a week and Jay agreed. She joined Hummingbird as the only female on the team, she continued to flirt with Jay and when Jay was teaching Mia how to ride a bike, she kept on intervening and wanting him to teach her even though she knows how. On a special episode, Shelly was seen riding a bike in Jay's neighborhood. Minu and Kay noticed her, Kay was thinking of who might Shelly go out with and ended up being shocked that it was his brother. In the last scene, Jay and Shelly are resting after riding their bike together, and she comments that Jay suits biking more than studying. The Preliminaries for the League of Street has started, only Dom and Jay were able to race at the first two rounds. After that, they found out that Jay's birthday was near and planned to celebrate it. She didn't showed up at school on his birthday because she was the one who prepared the gift that they got for him.