Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive brain condition that's thought to be caused by repeated blows to the head and repeated episodes of concussion. It's particularly associated with contact sports, such as boxing or American football. Most of the available studies are based on ex-athletes. CTE was previously known as "punch drunk" syndrome and dementia pugilistica. But these terms are no longer used because it's now known that the condition is not limited to ex-boxers. There's still some debate about how common CTE is and how it should be diagnosed. Currently, only supportive treatments are available and research is focused on finding a reliable technique to diagnose the condition. The symptoms of CTE vary between individuals, but tend to be similar to those of other types of degenerative brain conditions, particularly Alzheimer's disease. CTE usually begins gradually several years after receiving repetitive blows to the head or repeated concussions. The symptoms affect the functioning of the brain and eventually lead to dementia. Any prolonged activity that involves repeated blows to the head or recurrent episodes of concussion is thought to increase the risk of getting CTE. But CTE and consensus are separate conditions. Many people who are concussed do not go on to develop CTE, but evidence suggests a pattern of repeated minor head injuries increases the risk. Although the exact causes are not fully understood, certain groups of people are believed to be most at risk. It's a good idea to see your GP if you're worried about your memory. If you're worried about someone else, you should encourage them to make an appointment and perhaps suggest that you go along with them.
Memory problems are not just caused by dementia. Your GP can carry out some simple checks to try to find out what the cause may be, and they can refer you to a specialist memory clinic for more tests, if necessary. Read about when to get medical advice for symptoms of concussion and symptoms of a minor head injury. There's currently no test to diagnose CTE. A diagnosis is based on a history of participating in contact sports, plus the symptoms and clinical features. Your GP will talk to you about the problems you're experiencing and may ask you to carry out some simple mental or physical tasks, such as moving or walking around. They may refer you to a specialist memory assessment service, staffed by experts in diagnosing, caring for and advising people with dementia and their families. Memory clinic staff can listen to your concerns, assess your skills and, if necessary, arrange further tests to rule out other conditions.
The only way to prevent CTE is to avoid repetitive head injuries.
In CTE, the changes to the brain do not always show up on routine brain scans or may be similar to other conditions. This means the only way of confirming CTE is by carrying out a post-mortem after a person with the condition dies. Research has found that the changes in the brain associated with CTE are different from those seen in Alzheimer's disease. But both conditions are associated with shrinking of the brain (atrophy) and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles that contain a protein called tau. The most widely used tests for investigating neurodegenerative disorders are MRI scans and CT scans. Research is ongoing to determine whether other brain imaging techniques will be able to help diagnose CTE in the future. As with many other types of dementia, treatment for CTE is based around supportive treatments. If you have been diagnosed with the condition, healthcare professionals, such as your GP or specialist, and social care services (normally your local council working with the NHS) will usually be involved in helping draw up and carry out a long-term care plan. You may also see a speech and language therapist or occupational therapist. You may also find it helpful to get in touch with a local or national Alzheimer's or dementia support group, such as the Alzheimer's Society or Dementia UK, for more information and advice. The only way to prevent CTE is to avoid repetitive head injuries. Although many head injuries are difficult to predict or avoid, there are things you can do to reduce your risk.
Scott Shelly ( Hangul:셸리 ) is one of the female protagonists in the webtoon. She begins a one-sided relationship with Jay at the start of the series but as the story progress they have a mutual crush on each other and as of chapter 378 they are in a relationship. Shelly is the only female member of the Humming Bird Crew. Because she stayed at England before coming to Korea her personality is perceived as very headstrong. She does not like it when people talk badly about her friends, especially Jay. Shelly also has a lot of stamina and strength, she can keep up with the group's pace when racing and can actually send people flying with her punch (Although that may be for comedic reasons) but never got into the street fights with the guys of the crew. When she was hit on in her first appearance on the series she refused with a lot of sass. Mia described her as someone who can confidently express her thoughts and feelings. Although her words are harsh, it is because she never sugar coated her words with her friends. And with Jay, Shelly is very clingy and flirtatious. She has very foreign features: pale skin, her eyes actually look more mint green in color than blue, blond wavy hair. It is known later in the series that she has a tattoo in the side of her arm near the wrist that reads out "temet nosce" or "Know Thyself". At school she wears her uniform usually without the red vest and both wears the skirt and pants.
She is often seen wearing high-end brand clothing, but also occasionally wearing street wear and tomboyish clothes. When riding her bike, she usually wears a jacket and helmet with the same color as her eyes or the Hummingbird crew's hood. She is tall, with long thin legs, a small waist and a bigger bust. Not much is known about Shelly, but it is established that she is from England and she requested to transfer to Sunny High School because of Jay. It was told in an early episode (Ep. 27) that she will be in Korea for one semester. Shelly is the granddaughter of Sunny High School's principal, Nick. When Shelly was a kid, she didn't want to get married and promised Nick that she will just live with him forever, which caused Nick to think that Shelly is not interested to guys until she got interested in Jay. That also caused the over protectiveness of her grandfather. Jay saw what happened and chased the thieves to get her purse back. She refused on taking him to the hospital but Jay refused. She picked up his student ID that had fallen to the ground and, motivated by her encounter with Jay, called her grandfather, asking him to let her attend Sunny High School. Her second meeting with Jay was in their classroom. She kissed him out of the blue and the gossip that Shelly and Jay were in a relationship quickly spread around the school.
39;s birthday was near and planned to celebrate it.
When Jay, Dom and Minu got suspended, Shelly visited them and scolded Dom and Minu badly about how Jay got caught with their actions. Jay got pissed and told her to screw off, she ended up crying and running away. When Jay was about to say sorry, he got a pink rose from Minu, saying that he should give it to her. He couldn't and Shelly went on saying that she'll forgive him if he became her boyfriend for a week and Jay agreed. She joined Hummingbird as the only female on the team, she continued to flirt with Jay and when Jay was teaching Mia how to ride a bike, she kept on intervening and wanting him to teach her even though she knows how. On a special episode, Shelly was seen riding a bike in Jay's neighborhood. Minu and Kay noticed her, Kay was thinking of who might Shelly go out with and ended up being shocked that it was his brother. In the last scene, Jay and Shelly are resting after riding their bike together, and she comments that Jay suits biking more than studying. The Preliminaries for the League of Street has started, only Dom and Jay were able to race at the first two rounds. After that, they found out that Jay's birthday was near and planned to celebrate it. She didn't showed up at school on his birthday because she was the one who prepared the gift that they got for him.
When the boys with the worried June except Jay planned to give Jay a strong alcoholic drink, they didn't expect Shelly to drink it, thinking it was juice. They are dumb-founded and later on, a drunk Shelly came closer to Jay and told her how she was hurt by his actions and proceeding to kiss him the second time. They pulled Shelly of Jay who was already littered with kiss marks. Mia was the one who brought Shelly home, when she was sober enough, Mia asked her if she liked Jay which she answered yes. Mia told her how she envied her for being able to confidently express her thoughts and feelings. Shelly answered that she doesn't understand Mia's concern and told her an advice to start believing in herself more and learning to love herself. This pushed Mia to contact the modeling agency that reached out to her. Before the race, Shelly was being hit on by a member of the Bullet Crew who will be racing against them. The glasses guy kept on hitting on her even when she's denying him. Vinny came to her rescue and punched the guy when he didn't stop.
39;t able to do so.
That led to the glasses guy to take drugs to have a revenge against the Hummingbird Crew. Shelly took the lead until he passes the baton to June. As the race ended, she tried to kiss Jay in his sleep but he moved and she wasn't able to do so. She also took the test with Minu and Dom since, in a sense, she is still a student at Sunny High. When Mia was modeling, a bunch of girls kept on talking about her, gossiping about Mia like dating an old guy or having a sugar daddy to be able to model. Shelly obviously tried to help her. Yuna and Shelly later on went to Mia's house in hopes that they could get her to come to school. On the way riding a bus, a guy came up on her behind and was hitting on her, she shut him down while cursing, very contrasting of her appearance. When Yuna, Mia and Shelly were talking at the park near Mia's house, Shelly started saying something harsh to Mia, although it is a way to actually let Mia see what's happening beyond her room which she choose to lock herself with. Yuna reprimanded Shelly, saying she was too harsh and Mia broke down but then was silent at what Shelly said. After that talk, the three of them came at Heri's bike shop so that Mia can say thank you.
After that, she was asked by Minu, Dom and Jay to accompany Mia because she will be more comfortable knowing Shelly was around. She said that she did stay because she was told to but in truth, she came because she is worried, when Mia fought back with her bullies and was slapped, Yuna and Shelly came to her rescue. Shelly even tripped the girl who slapped Mia. And told Yuna and her that it seems like there's nothing to be worried about anymore. Which made Mia smile. Nick (Grandfather) - it is seen that her grandfather is very loving and protective of her. He was ecstatic when she called to say that she was moving to Korea. When she went to her first day of school at Sunny High he was seen outside her classroom being protective and calling her 'his sweet Shelly.' He perceived her as an innocent child who had no interest in boys, that is until she met Jay. This might be because of when Shelly was a child, she said to her grandfather that she will never get married and live forever with him. Shelly's Dad - The only time that Shelly's dad was mentioned was when she asked him to take her bike apart and send it to her in Korea.