Butterflies and moths (rama-rama) are insects belonging to the order Lepidoptera, or 'scale-winged insects' (lepis, scales and pteron, wings). In simple terms, butterflies are distinguished from moths aka night butterflies based on their active time and physical characteristics. Butterflies are generally active during the day (diurnal), while moths are mostly active at night (nocturnal). Butterflies rest or perch by straightening their wings, moths perch by spreading their wings. Butterflies usually have beautiful brilliant colors, moths tend to be dark, dull or gray. However, there are always exceptions to these differences, so they cannot scientifically be used as a definitive guide. There are many kinds of butterflies and moths, in Java and Bali alone, more than 600 species of butterflies have been recorded. So far, no complete list of moth species has been made, but hundreds of species are suspected (Whitten et al., 1999). Butterflies are one of the few types of insects that are harmless to humans. Many believe that butterflies have a very short lifespan. In fact, an adult butterfly can live for a week or almost a year depending on the species. Most species go through a rather long larval stage, and some are able to become dormant when in the pupa or egg stage in order to be able to wade through the winter. Butterflies can lay eggs once or many times each year. The number of offspring per year differs depending on the climate, with butterflies living in the tropics able to lay eggs more than once a year.
Butterfly eggs are always laid on plants.
Butterfly eggs are protected by a tough burrowing shell called the chorion which is covered with an anti-wax coating that protects the eggs from drying out before the larvae have time to fully develop. Different species have different egg sizes, but all butterfly eggs are spherical or oval in shape. Butterfly eggs are attached to the leaves with a special adhesive that hardens quickly. When it hardens, it contracts and bends the shape of the egg. This adhesive is easily seen to form the meniscus material that surrounds the site of each egg. This adhesive is also produced by the pupa to bind the cremaster setae. This adhesive is so hard that the silk lining that holds the seta together cannot be separated. Butterfly eggs are always laid on plants. Each species of butterfly has its own range of host plants, both single species and multiple species. The egg stage is passed over several weeks for most butterflies, but eggs that are released shortly before winter, especially in temperate climates, must go through a diapaus (resting) stage and only hatch in the spring. There are other butterfly species that lay eggs in the spring so that the eggs can hatch in the summer. Butterfly larvae, namely caterpillars, feed on plant leaves and spend all their time as shells looking for food. Most beluncas are mauns, but there are species such as Spalgis epius and Liphyra brassolis that feed on insects. Some larvae, especially those belonging to the Lycaenidae, establish mutually beneficial relationships with ants.
Beluncas communicate with ants by using vibrations emitted through the substrate in addition to emitting chemical signals. The ants protect these larvae more or less; in return, the larvae help the ants collect the honey seepage. Beluncas enlarge through a series of stages called instars. Towards the end of each instar, the larvae undergo a process called apolysis, in which the epidermis, the tough outer layer made of a mixture of chitin and special proteins, is expelled from the soft underlying epidermis, the epidermis forming the new epidermis below. At the end of each instar, the larva gives birth to its old skin, then the new skin develops and then hardens and produces pigment rapidly. The process of copying this skin can take days. The butterfly flap pattern begins to develop on the body of the beluncas towards the last instar. Butterfly caterpillars have three pairs of legs fixed on the thoracic segment and no more than six pairs of prolegs growing on the abdominal segment. On this prokaki there is a fine hook bracelet that is krusye which helps the beluncas to grip the substrate. Some caterpillars can inflate part of their head to resemble a snake as a defensive measure. Some are also equipped with false eyes to make them more efficient. Some beluncas have a special structure called an osmeterium which is butted to leak out spoiled chemicals for defensive purposes as well. Houseplants often contain toxic substances in them which can be separated by the beluncas for storage until they are mature so that they are not pleasant to eat by birds and similar predators. This unpleasantness is demonstrated by the warning colors red, orange, black or white, in a practice known as aposematism. Toxic substances in plants are often developed specifically to protect plants from being eaten by insects.
Unlike butterflies, caterpillars live mainly by eating leaves.
However, insects manage to develop countermeasures or utilize these toxins for self-sufficiency. Many people like beautiful butterflies, but on the contrary, it is rare for people who do not feel disgusted with caterpillars, even though they are the same creature. All types of butterflies and moths go through life stages as eggs, caterpillars, pupae, and finally metamorphose into butterflies or moths. Butterflies generally live by sucking flower nectar (nectar). However, some species like the liquid sucked from fruit that falls on the ground and rots, carrion meat, bird droppings, and wet soil. Unlike butterflies, caterpillars live mainly by eating leaves. These caterpillars are very voracious, but generally each type of caterpillar specializes in eating the leaves of certain types of plants. So the presence of a type of butterfly in a place, is also determined by the availability of plants that host the caterpillars. Butterflies and moths are known as pollinating insects, which help flowers develop into fruit. So for farmers, and people in general, these butterflies are very useful to help pollinate plants.
To take advantage of the beauty of several types, people are now developing butterfly farms.
On the other hand, various types of caterpillars are known to be voracious pests. It is not only seasonal crops that are preyed upon, but also fruit trees and trees in general can be defoliated by caterpillars in a relatively short time. Many types of caterpillar pests, especially from the types of moths are serious agricultural pests. To take advantage of the beauty of several types, people are now developing butterfly farms. H. van Mastrigt and E. Rosariyanto. 2005. Butterfly Field Guidebook for the Mamberamo Region to the Cyclops Mountains. T. Whitten, RE Soeriaatmadja, SA Affiff. 1999. Ecology of Java and Bali. Powell, J.A. (1987). "Records of prolonged diapause in Lepidoptera". India, a Lifescape: Butterflies of Peninsular India. Hyderabad, India: Universities Press. Do Butterflies Bite?: Fascinating Answers to Questions About Butterflies and Moths. Rutgers University Press. 2008. p. Devries, PJ (1988). "The larval ant-organs of Thisbe irenea (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) and their effects upon attending ants". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Devries, Pj (1990). "Enhancement of Symbioses Between Butterfly Caterpillars and Ants by Vibrational Communication". Braby, Michael (2000). Butterflies of Australia: Their Identification, Biology and Distribution. Ehrlich, PR; Raven, PH (1964). "Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution". Evolution. 18(4):586-608. doi:10.2307/2406212. Archived 2012-08-10 at the Wayback Machine. Delias Kristianeae (van Mastrigt, 2006): named for Mrs. Kristianti Herawati.
What You Don't Know About Manga May Shock You
Moon Breathing (月 (つき) (こ) (きゅう), Tsuki no kokyū?) is a Breathing Style derived from the Sun Breathing used by Upper Rank One, Kokushibō, who was one of the first Demon Slayers who utilized breathing techniques. The techique allows the user to create many "chaotic blades" when slashing that varies in length and size. It is known that Kokushibō continued to develop and add techniques to the Breathing Style over the centuries as an immortal Demon. At this point in the story, it is the only known Breathing Style to possess at least 20 different techniques, easily surpassing the other Breathing Styles. It has been revealed that, like all of the other original breathing styles, the Moon Breathing also branched out of the Sun Breathing. When its creator, Michikatsu Tsugikuni, attempted to learn the Sun Breathing from his twin brother, Yoriichi Tsugikuni, he discovered he was unable to master the breathing style and so was instead trained in an alternate Breathing Style. Yoriichi created it fit and cover his individual strengths and weaknesses, and Michikatsu then continued to train and develop this breathing until it eventually evolved into its own unique Breathing Style, which he named the Moon Breathing.
First Form: Dark Moon, Evening Palace (壹 (いち) (かた) (やみ) (づき) (よい) (みや), Ichi no kata: Yamidzuki - Yoi no Miya? ) - Kokushibō draws his sword and slashes swiftly in a single motion; like with all Moon Breathing techniques, numerous chaotic blades originate from the slash. This technique resembles Iaijutsu. Second Form: Pearl Flower Moongazing (貳 (に) (かた) (しゅ) (か) (ろう) (げつ), Ni no kata: Shuka no Rōgetsu?) - Kokushibō performs several slashes while sending a barrage of chaotic blades forward. Third Form: Loathsome Moon, Chains (參 (さん) (かた) (えん) (き) (づき) (つが), San no kata: Enkizuki - Tsugari?) - Kokushibō swings his sword rapidly in two gigantic crescents slashes, from which a storm of smaller crescents spread.
This technique causes huge destruction in a small area. Fourth Form: Solar Rings, Frostmoon (肆 (し) (かた) (たい) (よう) (りん) (しも) (づき), Shi no kata: Taiyōrin - Shimodzuki? ) - Kokushibō performs a circular small cyclone slashes of chaotic blades straight towards his opponent. Fourth Form: Improved, Red Sun over Paradise (肆 (し) (かた) (かい) (あっき) (よう) (らく) (えん), Shi no kata kai: Akk' yō Rakuen?) - Kokushibō spins his blade slicing through the ground and ripping it out. Causing multiple 180 slashes across the area to be sented towards his opponents as chaotic blades appear when near the enemy slicing into their body. As the circular slashes spin grinding into the enemys skin.