Ehyeh ("I Will Be"). Early authorities considered other Hebrew names mere epithets or descriptions of God and wrote that they and names in other languages may be written and erased freely. Orthodox Jews have adopted the chumras of writing "Gd" instead of "God" in English or saying t-Vav (טו, lit. Yōd-Hē (יה, lit. "10-5" but also "Jah") for the number fifteen or t-Zayin (טז, lit. Yōd-Vav (יו, lit. "10-6") for the number sixteen in Hebrew. Shaddai, Tzevaot; some also include Ehyeh ("I Will Be"). In addition, the name Jah-because it forms part of the Tetragrammaton-is similarly protected. Rabbi Ishmael considered "Elohim" to be one. All other names, such as "Merciful", "Gracious" and "Faithful", merely represent attributes that are also common to human beings. Also abbreviated Jah, the most common name of God in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton,, that is usually transcribed as YHWH. Hebrew script is an abjad, so that the letters in the name are normally consonants, usually expanded as Yahweh in English.
Vowel points began to be added to the Hebrew text only in the early medieval period.
Modern Jewish culture judges it forbidden to pronounce this name. In prayers it is replaced by the word Adonai ("My Lord"), and in discussion by HaShem ("The Name"). Book of Ruth shows it was being pronounced as late as the 5th century BCE. Mark Sameth argues that only a pseudo name was pronounced, the four letters YHWH being a cryptogram which the priests of ancient Israel read in reverse as huhi, "heshe", signifying a dual-gendered deity, as earlier theorized by Guillaume Postel (16th century ) and Michelangelo Lanci (19th century). It had ceased to be spoken aloud by at least the 3rd century BCE, during Second Temple Judaism. The Talmud relates, perhaps anecdotally, this began with the death of Simeon the Just. Vowel points began to be added to the Hebrew text only in the early medieval period. 6,828 times in total in the Stuttgart edition of the Masoretic Text. Rabbinical Judaism teaches that the name is forbidden to all except the High Priest, who should only speak it in the Holy of Holies of the Temple in Jerusalem on Yom Kippur. As each blessing was made, the people in the courtyard were to prostrate themselves completely as they heard it spoken aloud. As the Temple has not been rebuilt since its destruction in 70, most modern Jews never pronounce YHWH but instead read Adonai ("My Lord") during prayer and while reading the Torah and as HaShem ("The Name") at other times.
similarly, the Vulgate used Dominus ("The Lord") and most English translations of the Bible write "the Lord" for YHWH and "the Lord God", "the Lord God" or "the Sovereign Lord" for Adonai YHWH instead of transcribing the name. All surviving Christian-era manuscripts use Kyrios (Κυριος, "Lord") or very occasionally Theos (Θεος, "God") to translate the many thousand occurrences of the Name. Theos should probably not be considered historically as a serious early contender substitute for the divine Name. Adonai (אֲדֹנָי ʾăḏōnāy, lit. As with Elohim, Adonai's grammatical form is usually explained as a plural of majesty. In the Hebrew Bible, it is nearly always used to refer to God (approximately 450 occurrences). As pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton came to be avoided in the Hellenistic period, Jews may have begun to drop the Tetragrammaton when presented alongside Adonai and subsequently expand it to cover for the Tetragrammaton in the forms of spoken prayer and written scripture. Owing to the expansion of chumra (the idea of "building a fence around the Torah"), the word "Adonai" itself has come to be too holy to say for Orthodox Jews outside of prayer, leading to its replacement by HaShem ("The name"). The Phoenicians used it as a title of Tammuz, the origin of the Greek Adonis.
It is also used very occasionally in Hebrew texts to refer to God (eg Yahweh alongside the superlative constructions "God of gods" (elōhê ha-elōhîm, literally, "the gods of gods") and "Lord of lords" (adōnê ha- adōnîm, "the lords of lords": יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי ; KJV: "For the LORD your God is God of gods, and Lord of lords"). The final syllable of Adonai uses the vowel kamatz, rather than patach which would be expected from the Hebrew for "my lord(s)". Professor Yoel Elitzur explains this as a normal transformation when a Hebrew word becomes a name, giving as other examples Nathan, Yitzchak, and Yigal. As Adonai became the most common reverent substitute for the Tetragrammaton, it too became considered un-erasable due to its holiness. As such, most prayer books avoid spelling out the word Adonai, and instead write two yodhs (יְיָ) in its place. El appears in Ugaritic, Phoenician and other 2nd and 1st millennium BCE texts both as generic "god" and as the head of the divine pantheon. In the Hebrew Bible, El (אל, el) appears very occasionally alone (eg When Elohim refers to God in the Hebrew Bible, singular verbs are used. The word is identical to elohim meaning gods or magistrates, and is cognate to the 'lhm found in Ugaritic, where it is used for the pantheon of Canaanite gods, the children of El and conventionally vocalized as "Elohim" although the original Ugaritic vowels are unknown. When the Hebrew Bible uses elohim not in reference to God, it is plural (for example, Exodus 20:2). There are a few other such uses in Hebrew, for example Behemoth.
In Modern Hebrew, the singular word ba'alim ("owner") looks plural, but likewise takes a singular verb. Elohim is thus the plural construct "powers". Hebrew grammar allows for this form to mean "He is the Power (singular) over powers (plural)", just as the word Ba'alim means "owner" (see above). Theologians who dispute this claim cite the hypothesis that plurals of majesty came about in more modern times. This last name may have been suggested by the we used by kings when speaking of themselves (compare 1 Maccabees 10:19 and 11:31); and the plural used by God in Genesis 1:26 and 11:7; Isaiah 6:8 has been incorrectly explained in this way). It is, however, either communicative (including the attendant angels: so at all events in Isaiah 6:8 and Genesis 3:22), or according to others, an indication of the fullness of power and might implied. It is best explained as a plural of self-deliberation. The use of the plural as a form of respectful address is quite foreign to Hebrew. Mark S. Smith has cited the use of plural as possible evidence to suggest an evolution in the formation of early Jewish conceptions of monotheism, where in references to "the gods" (plural) in earlier accounts of verbal tradition became either interpreted as multiple aspects of a single monotheistic God at the time of writing, or subsumed under a form of monolatry, where in the god(s) of a certain city would be accepted after the fact as a reference to the God of Israel and the plural deliberately dropped.
Torah, Joshua, or Judges.
The plural form ending in -im can also be understood as denoting abstraction, as in the Hebrew words chayyim ("life") or betulim ("virginity"). If understood this way, Elohim means "divinity" or "deity". The word chayyim is similarly syntactically singular when used as a name but syntactically plural otherwise. In many of the passages in which elohim occurs in the Bible, it refers to non-Israelite deities, or in some instances to powerful men or judges, and even angels (Exodus 21:6, Psalms 8:5) as a simple plural in those instances. God in Judaism, with its etymology coming from the influence of the Ugaritic religion on modern Judaism. El Shaddai is conventionally translated as "God Almighty". While the translation of El as "god" in Ugaritic/Canaanite languages is straightforward, the literal meaning of Shaddai is the subject of debate. Torah, Joshua, or Judges. Starting in the Books of Samuel, the term "Lord of Hosts" appears hundreds of times throughout the Prophetic books, in Psalms, and in Chronicles. The Hebrew word Sabaoth was also absorbed in Ancient Greek (σαβαωθ, sabaōth) and Latin (Sabaoth, with no declension). Tertullian and other patristics used it with the meaning of "Army of angels of God". Ehyeh asher ehyeh (אֶהְיֶה ) is the first of three responses given to Moses when he asks for God's name in the Book of Exodus.
Biblical Hebrew does not distinguish between grammatical tenses.
The King James Version of the Bible translates the Hebrew as "I Am that I Am" and uses it as a proper name for God. The word ehyeh is the first-person singular imperfect form of hayah, "to be". Biblical Hebrew does not distinguish between grammatical tenses. Accordingly, Ehyeh asher ehyeh can be rendered in English not only as "I am that I am" but also as "I will be what I will be" or "I will be who I will be", or "I shall prove to be whatsoever I shall prove to be" or even "I will be because I will be". The word asher is a relative pronoun whose meaning depends on the immediate context, so that "that", "who", "which", or "where" are all possible translations of that word. Hebrew and the other Northwest Semitic languages. In some early contexts and theophoric names, it and Baali (/ˈbeɪəlaɪ/; "My Lord") were treated as synonyms of Adon and Adonai.
Canaanite storm god Baʿal Haddu and was gradually avoided as a title for Yahweh. Several names that included it were rewritten as bosheth ("shame"). Elah (אֱלָה; Aramaic: ; pl. Aramaic word for God and the absolute singular form of, alāhā. The origin of the word is from Proto-Semitic il and is thus cognate to the Hebrew, Arabic, Akkadian, and other Semitic languages' words for god. Daniel. Elah is used to describe both pagan gods and the Abrahamic God. The word 'Elah (إله) is also an Arabic word meaning god. The word is etymologically related to Allah which is a contraction of الله or الٱِلٰه (ʾal- ilāh), literally meaning "the God", and is used for the Abrahamic God by Arabic-speaking Jews, Christians, Muslims, and sometimes other monotheistic religions. In the Book of Genesis, Hagar uses this name for the God who spoke to her through his angel. The name Elyon (עליון) occurs in combination with El, YHWH, Elohim and alone. It appears chiefly in poetic and later Biblical passages. The modern Hebrew adjective 'Elyon means "supreme" (as in "Supreme Court") or "Most High". El Elyon has been traditionally translated into English as 'God Most High'. The Phoenicians used what appears to be a similar name for God, one that the Greeks wrote as. It is cognate to the Arabic 'Aliyy.
Reform and Reconstructionist communities seeking to use gender-neutral language. In the Torah, YHWH El Olam ("the Everlasting God") is used at Genesis 21:33 to refer to God. It is common Jewish practice to restrict the use of the names of God to a liturgical context. In casual conversation some Jews, even when not speaking Hebrew, will call God HaShem (השם), which is Hebrew for "the Name" (cf. Leviticus 24:11 and Deuteronomy 28:58). When written, it is often abbreviated to. Likewise, when quoting from the Tanakh or prayers, some pious Jews will replace 'Adonai' with 'HaShem'. A popular expression containing this phrase is Baruch HaShem, meaning "Thank God" (literally, "Blessed be the Name"). Gideon's name for an altar ("YHVH-Shalom", according to Judges 6:24), write that "the name of God is 'Peace'" (Pereq ha-Shalom, Shab. But one is not permitted to greet another with the word shalom in unholy places such as a bathroom, because of the holiness of the name. Shekhinah (שכינה) is the presence or manifestation of God which has descended to "dwell" among humanity. The term never appears in the Hebrew Bible; later rabbis used the word when speaking of God dwelling either in the Tabernacle or amongst the people of Israel. The root of the word means "dwelling".
Of the principal names of God, it is the only one that is of the feminine gender in Hebrew grammar. Some believe that this was the name of a female counterpart of God, but this is unlikely as the name is always mentioned in conjunction with an article (eg: "the Shekhina descended and dwelt among them" or "He removed Himself and His Shekhina from their middle"). This kind of usage does not occur in Semitic languages in conjunction with proper names. The Arabic form of the word Sakīnah (سكينة) is also mentioned in the Quran. Aleim - sometimes seen as an alternative transliteration of Elohim, A'lim "عليم" in Arabic means "who intensively knows", A'alim "عالم" means "who knows", the verb is A'lima لم means "knew", while Allahumma "اللهم" in Arabic equals to "O'God" and used to supplicate him for something. Aravat (or Avarat) - "Father of Creation"; mentioned once in 2 Enoch, "On the tenth heaven is God, in the Hebrew tongue he is called Aravat". Dibbura or Dibbera - "The Word (The Law)" - used primarily in the Palestinian Targums of the Pentateuch (Aramaic); eg Num 7:89, The Word spoke to Moses from between the cherubim in the holy of holies.