Were Samurai Who Lost Their Master

1185-1868) of Japan. A samurai became masterless upon the death of his master or after the loss of his master's favor or privilege. In modern Japanese usage, usually the term is used to describe a salaryman who is unemployed or a secondary school graduate who has not yet been admitted to university. The word rōnin literally means "wave man". It is an idiomatic expression for "vagrant" or "wandering man", someone who finds the way without belonging to one place. The term originated in the Nara and Heian periods, when it referred to a serf who had fled or deserted his master's land. In medieval times, the Ronin were depicted as the shadows of samurai, master-less and less honorable. It then came to be used for a samurai who had no master (hence the term "wave man" illustrating one who is socially adrift). According to the Bushido Shoshinshu (the "Code of the Warrior"), a samurai was supposed to commit seppuku (also harakiri, "belly cutting", a form of ritual suicide) upon the loss of his master.

They could also marry between classes.

One who chose not to honor the code was "on his own" and was meant to suffer great shame. The undesirability of rōnin status was mainly a discrimination imposed by other samurai and by daimyō, the feudal lords. Like other samurai, rōnin wore two swords. Rōnin used a variety of other weapons as well. Some rōnin-usually those who lacked money-would carry a bō (staff around 1.5 to 1.8 m (5 to 6 ft)) or jō (smaller staff or walking stick around 0.9 to 1.5 m (3 to 5 ft)) or a yumi (bows). Most weapons would reflect the ryū (martial arts school) from which they came if they were students. During the Edo period, with the shogunate's rigid class system and laws, the number of rōnin greatly increased. Confiscation of fiefs during the rule of the third Tokugawa shgun Iemitsu and in an especially large increase of rōnin. During previous ages, samurai were able to move between masters and even between occupations. They could also marry between classes. However, during the Edo period, samurai were restricted, and were-above all-forbidden to become employed by another master without their previous master's permission. Because the former samurai could not legally take up a new trade, or because of pride were loath to do so, many rōnin looked for other ways to make a living with their swords.

Those rōnin who desired steady, legal employment became mercenaries that guarded trade caravans, or bodyguards for wealthy merchants. Many other rōnin became criminals, operating as bandits and highwaymen, or joining organized crime in towns and cities. Rōnin were known to operate or serve as hired muscle for gangs that ran gambling rings, brothels, protection rackets, and similar activities. Many were petty thieves and muggers. The criminal segment gave the rōnin of the Edo period a persistent reputation of disgrace, with an image of thugs, bullies, cutthroats, and wandering vagrants. Until the Sengoku period, peasants accounted for the majority of daimyō armies, so they accounted for the majority of ronin. Especially in the Sengoku period, daimyō needed additional fighting men, and even if a master had perished, his rōnin was able to serve new lords. In contrast to the later Edo period, the bond between the lord and the vassal was loose, and some vassals who were dissatisfied with their treatment left their masters and sought new lords. Many warriors served a succession of masters, and some even became daimy.

As an example, Tōdō Takatora served ten lords. Additionally, the division of the population into classes had not yet taken place, so it was possible to change one's occupation from warrior to merchant or farmer, or the reverse. Saitō Dōsan was one merchant who rose through the warrior ranks to become a daimyō. As Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified progressively more significant parts of the country, daimyō found it unnecessary to recruit new soldiers. The Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, in the confiscation or reduction of the fiefs of large numbers of daimy on the losing side; accordingly, many samurai became rōnin. As many as a hundred thousand rōnin joined forces with Toyotomi Hideyori and fought at the Siege of Osaka. In the ensuing years of peace, there was less need to maintain expensive standing armies, and many surviving rōnin turned to farms or became townspeople. A few, such as Yamada Nagamasa, sought adventure overseas as mercenaries. Still, the majority lived in poverty as rōnin. Their number approached half a million under the third Tokugawa shōgun Iemitsu. Initially, the shogunate viewed them as dangerous and banned them from the cities or restricted the quarters where they could live.

They also prohibit serving new masters. As rōnin found fewer options, they joined in the Keian Uprising of 1651. This forced the shogunate to rethink its policy. It relaxed restrictions on daimyō inheritance, resulting in fewer confiscations of fiefs, and it is permitted rōnin to join new masters. It was undesirable to be a rōnin, as it meant being without a stipend or land. As an indication of the shame felt by samurai who became rōnin, Lord Redesdale recorded that a rōnin killed himself at the graves of the forty-seven rōnin. He left a note saying that he had tried to enter the service of the daimyō of Chōshū Domain but was refused. He killed himself, wanting to serve no other master and hating being a rōnin. On the other hand, the famous 18th-century writer Kyokutei Bakin renounced his allegiance to Matsudaira Nobunari, in whose service Bakin's samurai father had spent his life. Bakin voluntarily became a rōnin, and eventually spent his time writing books (many of them about samurai) and engaging in festivities. In the 19th century, Emperor Meiji abolished the Samurai class and any status the ronin had died with them.

The two bosses each try to hire the newcomer as a bodyguard.

Numerous modern works of Japanese fiction set in the Edo period cast characters who are rōnin. The moniker Ronin has often appeared in Marvel Universe comic series, and has been used by many characters such as Echo (Maya Lopez), Hawkeye (Clint Barton) and many more. Rōnin are often depicted in the jidaigeki of Akira Kurosawa, in particular Yojimbo, Sanjuro and Seven Samurai. The 1954 film Seven Samurai follows the story of a village of farmers that hire seven rōnin to combat bandits who will return after the harvest to steal their crops. The 1961 film Yojimbo tells the story of a rōnin who arrives in a small town where competing crime lords vie for supremacy. The two bosses each try to hire the newcomer as a bodyguard. The film inspired the Spaghetti Western films A Fistful of Dollars and Django. The 1962 film Sanjuro is a sequel to Kurosawa's 1961 Yojimbo. In the Dragon Ball franchise, the character Yajirobe is a rōnin. In the manga and anime Rurouni Kenshin, the hitokiri Himura Kenshin becomes a rōnin after the end of the Edo period, wandering for ten years in order to mend his sins and to complete the restoration. Samurai Jack, the main protagonist of his eponymous animated television series, is technically a rōnin because he serves no master and is mostly seen wandering the land, searching for a resolution to his quest to defeat his nemesis, the shapeshifting master of darkness: Aku, after he opens a time portal that sends Jack into a future where Aku reigns supreme.

Hubbard, Ben (2014-06-02). Samurai: Swords, Shoguns and Seppuku.

In the 2004 anime series Samurai Champloo, one of the main protagonists is the rōnin Jin. Along with the vagrant swordsman Mugen, he accompanies a young girl named Fuu on a quest to find the "samurai who smells of sunflowers". The 2020 video game Ghost of Tsushima features many rōnin as part of the story, including Ryuzo (Leonard Wu), the childhood friend of the protagonist Jin Sakai. Hisuian Samurott, one of the three starter Pokémon's final evolutions from the 2022 video game Pokémon Legends: Arceus, is modeled after a typical rōnin. Barry Till, "The 47 Ronin: A Story of Samurai Loyalty and Courage", 2005, pg. Akihiko Yonekawa. Beyond Polite Japanese. Till, Barry (2005). The 47 Ronin: A Story of Samurai Loyalty and Courage. Hubbard, Ben (2014-06-02). Samurai: Swords, Shoguns and Seppuku. Rankin, Andrew (2012-11-20). Seppuku: A History of Samurai Suicide. Kallie Szczepanski Kallie Szczepanski has a Ph D. in; College, Has Taught at the; U. S, high school level in both the; Korea. Forbes, Andrew ; Henley, David (2012). Forty-Seven Ronin: Tsukioka Yoshitoshi Edition'David (2012). Forty-Seven Ronin: Utagawa Kuniyoshi Edition. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books.

This list describes characters from the anime and manga series Doraemon. Also listed are their original NTV voice actors (1973), followed by their TV Asahi voice actors (1979-2005; 2005-present). Part of the 22nd century characters are listed in The Doraemons. Each main character represents a primary school student archetype. Nobita appears in every episode of the anime, while Doraemon appears in most episodes, sometimes being substituted (for medical checkup or on leave) by his sister, Dorami. Note: In some translations of Doraemon, the names of these characters are different from the original names. 2.9 Nobisuke Nobi Jr. Albert in the Cinar dub of the series, is the title character and co-protagonist of the series. He is a cat-like robot from the future. He was yellow-skinned and had ears originally. However, his ears were accidentally eaten by a robot mouse. It left him heartbroken and caused his skin to turn blue. People often mistake him for a raccoon dog. He is sent back in time by Sewashi (Nobita's Great-great-grandson) to aid Nobita. Doraemon possesses a 4-dimensional pocket from which he can acquire various kinds of futuristic tools, gadgets, and playthings from a future department store.

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