Etymologically the archive comes from the ancient Greek archeion which is a development of the word arche which has various meanings, such as beginning, origin, main place, power, sovereignty, judiciary, and office. From this word formed the word archaios which means ancient, archeion which means government building which then gave birth to the word archivum (Latin), archive (English), archief (Dutch) and in Indonesian it became the word archive. 3. Organizations or institutions that manage and store a collection of manuscripts/documents. 2. Manuscripts made and accepted by private bodies and/or individuals, in any form, whether in single/group situations, in the context of implementing national life. As for the embodiment, it can be in the form of writing, prints, pictures, maps, sound discs, cassette tapes, films, etc. If you refer to the definition of archives above, then everything that is produced by an institution in the form of a good script because it is made by the agency because it has to carry out its duties and functions as an institution or is accepted because it has to relate to other institutions, then all of that can be called with archives. Archives have a very important meaning for an institution, and it makes archives must be saved because the information recorded in the archives stores a lot of important information about the collective memory of the nation or institution that can be used as evidence of accountability in the present or future.
Archives become authentic evidence regarding the administration of government and institutions which are part of national life. Therefore, archives stored in archival institutions, both central and regional and government institutions/agencies, must be managed properly through proper maintenance and care so that the existence of archives can be maintained forever following the archive's life cycle. In ensuring the preservation of archives for the future is not an easy task because naturally all materials will be damaged especially considering the tropical climate which is not favorable for the preservation of archival treasures. Damage to archives can be caused by various factors such as: chemistry, physics, biota, humans, natural disasters, disasters and others. To protect and prevent archives from archive destroying factors that can threaten the preservation of archives, maintenance and care actions must be carried out, including repairs if the archive is damaged. Therefore, the maintenance and care of archives must always be carried out by archival institutions and archive creators, but of course it is of no use if the management is not professional. With professional arrangement/management, archives as materials for presenting information and authentic evidence of an institution can be found quickly and easily. The subject matter of archives is how they are recovered and not how they are stored. Written information is stored for later use.
File is a collection of letters that have the same problem or related activities.
Keeping well-written information is important whereas retrieving it quickly is vital. Irregular archives, both those that are under the table or in other places, the masters and the no masters are collected in one place. Except for the archives that have been neatly organized and have a list. Irregular archives must first be weeded from non archives or discarding something that has nothing to do with archives such as; empty folders, envelopes, blanks, cardboard files, plastics and so on, this is intended so that the archive is clean and can be filed properly. The archives that have been collected must be sorted by year of publication and sorted by the work unit of the archive creator. File is a collection of letters that have the same problem or related activities. Some files are grouped and some are single. Grouped files consist of several items such as related supporting files that have the same problem or activity and their attachments. If the archives that are grouped are not integrated or separated from other items, they must be searched and combined so that they become a complete file. Folders are archive folders that have tabs/ears at the top right on the back side of the folder.
In this tab write the title / file name. This folder is only filled with one file even though it is a single file (only one sheet). Files that have been entered into the folder are recorded in the Archive List sequentially according to the archive year and problem classification. The archive list consists of several archive groups. Active File List, Active in file list or submitted file list. The list of active archives is a list of records of archives that are still active, namely archives that are still used directly and continuously and are still in the process of being followed up. The active in-file list is a list of archive records whose frequency of use has decreased, this list is used as a reference for shrinking archives. While the list of archives to be submitted is a list of static archives that will be submitted to the National Archives as a national archival institution that stores static archives containing secondary use values. Files that have been merged are stored and organized in filing cabinets / filing cabinets that can store folders hanging in a file box / drawer. Folder positions are arranged sequentially from front to back according to the classification of archive problems. This setting is only specific to active records while active files will be organized in a different way in the Archives Unit (record center). The active archive folder is not stored in a hanging folder in the filing cabinet but is put in a filing box and placed on an open shelf. Until now, it seems that the archiving problem is still not getting the proper attention by various agencies (both government and private). Lack of attention to archives is not only in terms of maintaining and securing archives, but also in terms of the filing system, resulting in archives being difficult to find if needed at any time.
The problem of archives is dynamic because the archive will continue to grow in tune with the development of the organization or institution concerned. The continuous increase of archives without being followed by work procedures and archival equipment/facilities as well as professional experts in the field of archives will cause its own problems. Based on this description, problems in the field of archives in more detail can be described as follows. 1. Retrieval of archives quickly and precisely if needed again, both by the leadership of the organization concerned and by other organizations often cannot be done properly. 2. Many institutions lose archives as a result of a less systematic storage system, imperfect maintenance and security systems, as well as borrowing or use of archives by leaders or by other organizational units, which have a long period of time, so that archives are forgotten to be returned to the archival unit. 3. Archives always develop continuously into the archive section without being followed by shrinkage so that the archive storage space is not sufficient. 4. Archival work procedures that do not follow the latest developments in archival science due to incompetent archiving employees and lack of regular guidance from the leadership and archiving experts. 5. Inadequate archive management equipment or facilities, not keeping up with information technology developments, due to lack of available funds, and unprofessional archiving staff.
6. Lack of awareness of employees about the important role of archives for organizations or institutions, so that the system for storing, maintaining and maintaining records does not receive proper attention. There are three principles in archive management, namely the principle of centralization, the principle of decentralization and the principle of a combination of centralization and decentralization. Centralization in archive management means archive storage that is centralized in a special work unit commonly called the Archives Center or Archive Center. With archive centralization, all office documents that have been processed will be stored in the Central Archives. Work units that require records will take longer to obtain the required files. The principle of decentralization in archive management means that all work units manage their own archives. In this case, all work units can use a storage system in accordance with the provisions of the unit concerned. For large organizations with separate office space, a decentralized archive management system is very suitable to be applied. The combined principle of records management means combining the principles of centralization and decentralization at the same time. This principle is applied in order to overcome the weaknesses that exist in the principle of centralization and the principle of decentralization which is often found in the management of records in offices. In the application of the combination principle, the management of active records is carried out in a decentralized manner, while inactive records are managed centrally. Basically there are five kinds of filing system, namely the alphabet system, subject system, chronological system (date), number system, and regional system (geographical). In archive storage which is based on an alphabetical system, the coding of archives is adjusted in alphabetical order.
The alphabetical code is indexed from the name of a person, organization or other similar entity. The subject system means an archive storage system based on the subject of the letter or the main body of the letter. In implementing this system, it is necessary to determine in advance the main problems faced on a daily basis. The problem is then classified into the main problem (main subject), sub-problem (sub-subject) and sub-sub-problem (sub-sub-subject). To expedite the application of this subject system, it is necessary to create a subject index. Archive storage with a chronological system is storage based on the date of the letter or the date of receipt of the letter. For incoming mail, storage is based on the date of receipt of the letter. But for outgoing mail, the archive is stored based on the date stated on the letter. Archive storage with a number system means storage based on numbers or codes in the form of numbers. This number system is known as a digit terminal system and a decimal classification system. The archive storage system with a regional system means that the archive storage is grouped based on certain areas, such as islands, provinces, cities, and so on. Records management using an automated system is an archival system that uses electronic data processing facilities by utilizing computer facilities and other information technology. The potential for sophisticated technology has provided opportunities to carry out archive automation activities. Through this archive automation, there are consequences that the classification or grouping of archives becomes complex. Electronic archives can occur in various groupings in various formats and various storage media. The use of archive automation media not only ensures efficiency, but is also able to reduce or develop the need for duplication if it is necessary. Delivery, processing, storage and retrieval of information can be done through a system that works quickly. If everything has been carefully calculated and then technically can meet the needs of automation, then various conveniences will be provided to users of information both in large and small amounts.
Even the need for certain types of very detailed information can be met and manual system services can be replaced by automated systems. In an automated archive system, all groupings or classifications of records can be unified into a single database and can be taken "shortcuts" to increase speed in obtaining information. Automation allows information to be arranged in various patterns according to the various needs of potential users. Automation can quickly collect various information that is stored separately through precise and sophisticated indexing. Automatic filing systems have developed so that they have many variations and bring convenience in carrying out archiving tasks. For offices that require fast service with a high volume of archives, the use of modern tools will certainly lighten or simplify archive management. The use of modern technology in managing archives in various developed countries has started a long time ago. One of the techniques used by them is the document imaging system. The meaning of this term in English is as follows. Document imaging is the process of scanning pages or importing files into a database that will display the scanned page and ASCII text on the screen for later viewing. In this regard, database users must scan or "import" files that are expected to be searched and found in the database when needed later. Thus, it greatly facilitates and speeds up archive management. This program allows users to index, search and find full-text documents that they manage. Examples of document imaging brands that have been circulating in the market include Adaptec, Canon, Fujitsu, JVC, Laserfiche, Liberty, Panasonic, Plextor, Ricoh, Sony, UMAX, Yamaha, and others.
At least these activities also require a lot of time.
The following are some reasons why document imaging needs to be done in modern archive management. In principle, this technique can save quite a large budget when compared to archive management with a traditional filing system (traditional paper filing system). 1. If it is calculated in terms of costs, the largest direct cost required for conventional archive management is the cost of archive workers/officers who must handle searching/tracing, sending and re-locating archives in their original storage areas. At least these activities also require a lot of time. If it takes 15 minutes to search for an archive, it means that it will take even more time to carry out the next archive management activity (sending, duplicating, placing back, etc.). In short, you can imagine that if an archivist has to manage a large number of records, they will certainly spend a lot of money, time and effort. 2. The cost of indexing a document when it is first handled as an archive to be stored is still smaller than the cost of paying for the physical storage (file) of the archive in an adequate storage area and distributing it. 3. Significant costs can be saved because everyone who works in the archives unit can place documents without the help or support of individual knowledge that is too complex. In the archival unit, usually someone is considered important or valuable because the person concerned knows everything about the archives he manages. When that person no longer works there, the company will have trouble finding a replacement or have to train new people who will handle the archives.
Sometimes the time needed (as a transition period) for it is not short, which can be months. With a document imaging system, it is possible for someone to be able to handle archives quickly even though he is just trying it for the first time. 4. The document imaging system has access control capabilities that are safer than storing documents in a filing cabinet. A person cannot access a document unless the person concerned has access rights to the database or is listed in the directory in it. The document storage system (the repository) in the program can control every search and retrieval performed by a specific user address and name. 5. The document imaging system allows many people to access the same document quickly at the same time. This can be used to support conference activities in the same room or can be used by many parties who are participating in world-class meetings at once. 6. The document storage system allows the institution or its representatives through a designated or authorized person to be able to access documents/files from outside their offices (remote places). 7. Representatives of institutions or governments can browse simultaneously from various servers where documents are stored in any location they want. 8. Many other advantages can be obtained from the use of the system.