How many kinds of Mutations

What does mutation mean? Then, there is no impact, right? Come on, see the explanation in this article! Have you ever heard of the term mutation? In superhero movies, you might know that mutations cause the emergence of special powers possessed by heroes such as the hulk, wolverine, and spider-man. Even though the story is fiction, it's not completely mutated, it's also just a fictional story. In biology, mutations do occur in living things, and not necessarily, give the individual superpowers. So, what kind of mutation is it? The definition of mutation is a change that occurs in the sequence of nucleotides. Mutations are of two kinds, if a nucleotide change occurs in a gene, it is called a gene mutation or genetic mutation. Meanwhile, if the change is in the structure or number of chromosomes, it is called a chromosomal mutation. These changes can occur at the level of gene sequences (also called gene mutations) or at the level of chromosomal sequences. Uniquely, the chance for mutations to occur in nature is quite rare, guys! Each type of mutation has a different probability. For example, a chromosomal mutation in Down syndrome with a 1:1300 chance, as well as the rarest mutation, KAT6A syndrome, which only 150 people in the world have in history! One of the mutations that we often hear lately is the mutation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus which is now mutating into a variant of Omicron. With mutations, viruses can be potentially more dangerous than ever, especially if they are already able to evade the immune system or the vaccines available to us.

That was one of the examples of mutations that we often hear, hopefully it will be a brief description to better understand the meaning of mutation! Mutation itself consists of several types, let's see more! Mutations are changes that occur in genetic material, both DNA and RNA. Based on the classification, mutations are divided into several types. Cell type mutations are also divided into 2 types, namely somatic mutations and germinal mutations. Somatic mutations are mutations that occur in somatic cells, namely body cells such as skin cells. This mutation will not be passed on to their offspring. This mutation occurs in gamete cells, which are reproductive organ cells that include sperm and ova in humans. Therefore, this mutation occurs due to heredity. The next classification is the occurrence of mutations are distinguished based on the process or manner of occurrence. Mutations based on the way they occur are divided into 2 types, namely natural mutations and artificial mutations designed by humans to fulfill certain purposes. Genetic changes in natural mutations occur naturally without human intervention.

These mutations change the phenotype of the previously abnormal organism to normal.

This is due to the presence of natural mutagens that cause mutations. Cases of natural mutations are very rare. This mutation occurs in gamete cells, which are reproductive organ cells that include sperm and ova in humans. Therefore, this mutation occurs due to heredity. Furthermore, mutations are based on certain genetic traits of an individual. Dominant mutations are expressed in homozygous and heterozygous dominant genotypes. The dominant gene will then carry the trait that causes the mutation. The dominant mutation is expressed in a recessive homozygous genotype. The recessive gene will carry the trait that causes the mutation. Then, there are mutations that are classified according to the direction of the mutation. These mutations change the phenotype of the previously abnormal organism to normal. These mutations generally occur artificially. Because it has a positive impact and is used as a technology in the health sector. An example is treatment with radiotherapy methods. These mutations cause the phenotype of the previously normal organism to become abnormal. An example is sickle cell anemia, which attacks red blood cells. Well, for this classification, mutations are widely discussed in terms of the role that occurs in mutants (the mutated individual). These mutations occur and make organisms undergo adaptive changes. An example is a mutation in the CETP gene that causes the production of cholesterol in the body to be low. So that individuals avoid problems with blood vessels and heart disease despite consuming large amounts of cholesterol. The opposite of beneficial mutations, these mutations occur and make the organism undergo changes that are not adaptive. An example is a genetic mutation in grasshoppers that actually changes its color to pink, making it easy for predators to prey on it. Mutations are further classified based on changes in the phenotype. In macro mutations, changes occur quite significantly because large changes occur in the phenotype.

Thus the classification of the many types of mutations in this world.

Generally these mutations can be seen clearly, such as the mutation in the pink grasshopper. Micro-mutations alone cause only minor changes in the phenotype. In addition, these mutations often cannot be observed directly and require further research. Then finally, as we discussed earlier, mutations based on this level are divided into 2 types, namely gene mutations and chromosomal mutations. Thus the classification of the many types of mutations in this world. How? starting to shake a bit yet to do everything? Don't worry, take a breath. Sit comfortably, then continue the next discussion about the impact of mutations. OK, let's move on! A mutation is a change in form, quality, or other trait. From this sentence, we can understand that mutations can have both good and bad effects on an individual. Mutations are now widely used in various fields, especially in the field of biology. One example is the manufacture of seedless fruit, such as seedless watermelon. Have you tried it, haven't you? In addition, there is also the production of superior seeds, the manufacture of ornamental plants, and the formation of antibiotics can also be done by utilizing mutations.

The use of cancer cells in the manufacture of hybridoma cells because of their fast dividing nature.

Meanwhile, the bad impact is in several diseases suffered by individuals due to mutations, or making them unadaptive to the surrounding environment. Now, let's discuss in more detail about the effects of mutations. Cancer treatment uses mutagens in the form of radioactive rays to damage the DNA of cancer cells to mutate again and stop their growth. Hybridoma cells are the result of fusion or union of cancer cells with lymphocytes to produce monoclonal antibodies. The use of cancer cells in the manufacture of hybridoma cells because of their fast dividing nature. Lymphocytes are used to produce antibodies. The mutation causes an individual to become sickleemic. This condition makes the individual have a red blood cell shape resembling a crescent moon. With these conditions, a patient with sickleemia is quite resistant and will be more difficult to contract malaria. 1. Artificial mutagens can create food products that are preferred by the community, such as polyploidy fruit that does not have seeds. 2. Superior seeds can be created or formed by utilizing mutations, and can even become new species that have the desired properties (in other words, an evolutionary process occurs). In addition to having several benefits, mutations also have a negative impact, you know. The negative effects of mutations, among others, have an impact on humans, namely the emergence of diseases such as Turner Syndrome, Klinefelter, Jacob's Syndrome, Patau's Syndrome, Edward's Syndrome, Metafemale, and Sickle Cell Anemia.

Also read: What are the Benefits of Blood Transfusion? X. Usually, women have 46 sex chromosomes, but in people with Turner Syndrome, the chromosomes become XO and only 45. People with Turner Syndrome also experience infertility. People with Turner syndrome are born with one of their two X chromosomes missing. Jacob's syndrome occurs because there is an extra Y chromosome in males, so the chromosome becomes XYY. Although caused by genetic disorders, this syndrome usually does not come from disorders that are passed down from generation to generation. But inherited only from the father who experienced a spontaneous abnormality during the formation of sperm. Boys with an extra Y chromosome, so suffer from Jacob's syndrome. X in males. Therefore, in a Klinefelter patient, the chromosome becomes XXY. One of the visible physical characteristics of people with this syndrome is enlarged breasts. Apart from Klinefelter Syndrome, another disorder caused by chromosomal mutations is Patau syndrome. Patau syndrome has another name, namely Trisomy 13. As the name implies, in patients with Patau syndrome, there are 3 copies of the chromosome that are abnormal on the 13th chromosome. This syndrome can be seen because it causes a symptom. Polydactyl in patients with Patau's syndrome.

Chromosomes that have abnormalities in Edward's Syndrome are chromosome number 18. One of the characteristics of babies with Edward's Syndrome is overlapping fingers with the condition of the palms of the hands gripping. The next syndrome caused by chromosomal abnormalities is the metafemale syndrome. This syndrome is often also called superwoman syndrome, which causes sufferers to be larger than women in general. This is due to an excess of the X chromosome in the sufferer, so patients with Metafemale Syndrome usually have an XXX chromosome. Have you ever heard of anemia? Anemia caused by a gene mutation is called sickle cell anemia. This disease is caused by a change in 1 nucleotide in the gene encoding blood hemoglobin. As a result, in sickle cell anemia sufferers, the red blood cells are crescent-shaped, so they are not able to deliver oxygen optimally. In addition, this sickle shape also makes it difficult to move the red blood cells themselves. This situation causes tissue and organ damage due to the obstruction of red blood cell distribution. It turns out that there are also many, the effects caused by gene mutations. Thank you for studying on the Ruangguru blog today! Do you want to learn more about gene mutations? Come on, study together in the learning room! With thousands of quick concept videos and Adapto features, you can learn difficult material in your most comfortable way! Let's try it now, there is a discount you know! Irnaningtyas. (2018). Biology for SMA/MA Class XII Curriculum 2013 Revised.

ASCII Media Works began publishing the novels on April 10, 2009 under their Dengeki Bunko imprint.

Sword Art Online is a Japanese light novel series written by Reki Kawahara with accompanying illustrations drawn by abec. The series takes place in the near-future and focuses on various virtual reality MMORPG worlds. ASCII Media Works began publishing the novels on April 10, 2009 under their Dengeki Bunko imprint. Russia. With more than 16 million copies in print worldwide, there are future plans for publications in Germany, Italy, Austria, Switzerland, Vietnam and others. Kawahara also began writing a parallel series of light novels titled Sword Art Online: Progressive, a spin-off that focuses on the clearing of Aincrad, unlike the Aincrad stories of the main series. As of June 10, 2021, eight volumes have been published as part of the Progressive series. In addition to the original storyline of Sword Art Online and Sword Art Online: Progressive, Kawahara has also written and published Sword Art Online side stories. Accel World, have been sold at Comitia, Dengeki Bunko's Fair and have come along with the limited edition Blu-Ray/DVD Sword Art Online compilation volumes.

However, all of the art in the Material Editions is drawn by Kawahara himself.

Before Sword Art Online was published, Kawahara had posted Sword Art Online novels on his website and there are still a few side stories on Sword Art Online, although the original novels have been removed. In addition, Kawahara has published a side story of Sword Art Online in one of his other works, Accel World. In the tenth volume of Accel World, there is a chapter where it depicts a cross over between Sword Art Online and Accel World. Several of the side stories that he has released are in a collection called the Sword Art Online Material Edition, sold at the Comitia dōjinshi-selling event, which range from novels to manga. However, all of the art in the Material Editions is drawn by Kawahara himself. Aside from the light novels written by Kawahara, there are also two spin-offs written by other authors with supervision by him. The first one is Sword Art Online Alternative: Gun Gale Online series written by Keiichi Sigsawa and illustrated by Kouhaku Kuroboshi, while the other is Sword Art Online Alternative: Clover's Regret, written by Watase Souichirou and illustrated by Ginta. While both of these series take place in the same world as the main series written by Kawahara, they each feature different characters as the focus compared to the main series.

Afterword of the first light novel volume.(April 2009).1〉アインクラッド (電撃文庫) (in Japanese).26 V (in Japanese).(October 2012).1 (電撃文庫) (in Japanese).(June 2021).8 (電撃文庫) (in Japanese). Kawahara, Reki.(in Japanese).


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