How Long Would It Take For The Earth To Recover From Nuclear War

It has now been two decades since the introduction of thermonuclear fusion weapons into the military inventories of the great powers, and more than a decade since the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union ceased to test nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. Today our understanding of the technology of thermonuclear weapons seems highly advanced, but our knowledge of the physical and biological consequences of nuclear war is continuously evolving. Only recently, new light was shed on the subject in a study which the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency had asked the National Academy of Sciences to undertake. Previous studies had tended to focus very largely on radioactive fallout from a nuclear war; an important aspect of this new study was its inquiry into all possible consequences, including the effects of large-scale nuclear detonations on the ozone layer which helps protect life on earth from the sun's ultraviolet radiations. Assuming a total detonation of 10,000 megatons--a large-scale but less than total nuclear "exchange," as one would say in the dehumanizing jargon of the strategists--it was concluded that as much as 30-70 percent of the ozone might be eliminated from the northern hemisphere (where a nuclear war would presumably take place) and as much as 20-40 percent from the southern hemisphere.

Recovery would probably take about 3-10 years, but the Academy's study notes that long term global changes cannot be completely ruled out. The reduced ozone concentrations would have a number of consequences outside the areas in which the detonations occurred. The Academy study notes, for example, that the resultant increase in ultraviolet would cause "prompt incapacitating cases of sunburn in the temperate zones and snow blindness in northern countries.. " Strange though it might seem, the increased ultraviolet radiation could also be accompanied by a drop in the average temperature. The size of the change is open to question, but the largest changes would probably occur at the higher latitudes, where crop production and ecological balances are sensitively dependent on the number of frost-free days and other factors related to average temperature. The Academy's study concluded that ozone changes due to nuclear war might decrease global surface temperatures by only negligible amounts or by as much as a few degrees. To calibrate the significance of this, the study mentioned that a cooling of even 1 degree centigrade would eliminate commercial wheat growing in Canada. Thus, the possibility of a serious increase in ultraviolet radiation has been added to widespread radioactive fallout as a fearsome consequence of the large-scale use of nuclear weapons. And it is likely that we must reckon with still other complex and subtle processes, global in scope, which could seriously threaten the health of distant populations in the event of an all-out nuclear war.

If the power of the bomb was unexpected, so were the after-effects.

Up to now, many of the important discoveries about nuclear weapon effects have been made not through deliberate scientific inquiry but by accident. And as the following historical examples show, there has been a series of surprises. United States. Before it was set off at Bikini on February 28, 1954, it was expected to explode with an energy equivalent of about 8 million tons of TNT. Actually, it produced almost twice that explosive power--equivalent to 15 million tons of TNT. If the power of the bomb was unexpected, so were the after-effects. About 6 hours after the explosion, a fine, sandy ash began to sprinkle the Japanese fishing vessel Lucky Dragon, some 90 miles downwind of the burst point, and Rongelap Atoll, 100 miles downwind. Though 40 to 50 miles away from the proscribed test area, the vessel's crew and the islanders received heavy doses of radiation from the weapon's "fallout"--the coral rock, soil, and other debris sucked up in the fireball and made intensively radioactive by the nuclear reaction. One radioactive isotope in the fallout, iodine-131, rapidly built up to serious concentration in the thyroid glands of the victims, particularly young Rongelapese children.

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More than any other event in the decade of testing large nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, Castle/Bravo's unexpected contamination of 7,000 square miles of the Pacific Ocean dramatically illustrated how large-scale nuclear war could produce casualties on a colossal scale, far beyond the local effects of blast and fire alone. A number of other surprises were encountered during 30 years of nuclear weapons development. For example, what was probably man's most extensive modification of the global environment to date occurred in September 1962, when a nuclear device was detonated 250 miles above Johnson Island. The 1.4-megaton burst produced an artificial belt of charged particles trapped in the earth's magnetic field. Though 98 percent of these particles were removed by natural processes after the first year, traces could be detected 6 or 7 years later. A number of satellites in low earth orbit at the time of the burst suffered severe electronic damage resulting in malfunctions and early failure. It became obvious that man now had the power to make long term changes in his near-space environment.

What we have learned enables us However, to see more clearly.

Another unexpected effect of high-altitude bursts was the blackout of high-frequency radio communications. Disruption of the ionosphere (which reflects radio signals back to the earth) by nuclear bursts over the Pacific has wiped out long-distance radio communications for hours at distances of up to 600 miles from the burst point. Yet another surprise was the discovery that electromagnetic pulses can play havoc with electrical equipment itself, including some in command systems that control the nuclear arms themselves. Much of our knowledge was thus gained by chance--a fact which should imbue us with humility as we contemplate the remaining uncertainties (as well as the certainties) about nuclear warfare. What we have learned enables us However, to see more clearly. We know, for instance, that some of the earlier speculations about the after-effects of a global nuclear war were as far-fetched as they were horrifying--such as the idea that the worldwide accumulation of radioactive fallout would eliminate all life on the planet, or that it might produce a train of monstrous genetic mutations in all living things, making future life unrecognizable. And this accumulation of knowledge which enables us to rule out the more fanciful possibilities also allows us to reexamine, with some scientific rigor, other phenomena which could seriously affect the global environment and the populations of participant and nonparticipant countries alike.

39;s Great-great-grandson) to aid Nobita.

This list describes characters from the anime and manga series Doraemon. Also listed are their original NTV voice actors (1973), followed by their TV Asahi voice actors (1979-2005; 2005-present). Part of the 22nd century characters are listed in The Doraemons. Each main character represents a primary school student archetype. Nobita appears in every episode of the anime, while Doraemon appears in most episodes, sometimes being substituted (for medical checkup or on leave) by his sister, Dorami. Note: In some translations of Doraemon, the names of these characters are different from the original names. 2.9 Nobisuke Nobi Jr. Albert in the Cinar dub of the series, is the title character and co-protagonist of the series. He is a cat-like robot from the future. He was yellow-skinned and had ears originally. However, his ears were accidentally eaten by a robot mouse. It left him heartbroken and caused his skin to turn blue. People often mistake him for a raccoon dog. He is sent back in time by Sewashi (Nobita's Great-great-grandson) to aid Nobita. Doraemon possesses a 4-dimensional pocket from which he can acquire various kinds of futuristic tools, gadgets, and playthings from a future department store.

His favorite food is Dorayaki.

He also has the tendency to panic during emergencies, characterized by him frantically trying to pull out a very much-needed tool from his pocket, only to produce a huge assortment of household items and unwanted gadgets. Still, Doraemon is very friendly and intelligent, not to mention long-suffering because of Nobita's antics. Since Sewashi sent Doraemon to the past, Doraemon has been living as the unofficial fourth member of Nobita's family and acts like a second son to Nobita's parents, since despite being a robot, he requires basic needs for a person, such as eating, and also sleeps in the closet of Nobita's bedroom. He also fears mice greatly (due to a robot mouse having eaten his ears), even go crazy about it and pull out devastating gadgets, and most of the times, Nobita saves Doraemon in such situations. Although he has no fingers in most media, he can hold things because of the suction cups in his hands. His favorite food is Dorayaki. He has also been shown to date with normal female cat. He is the elder brother of Dorami.

He is usually accompanied by Doraemon, who functions as his caretaker.

Nobita Nobi (野比, Nobi Nobita, English dub: Sidney in the Cinar dub, Specky in the Speedy dub, and Noby Nobi in the Bang Zoom! dub) is the co-protagonist of the series. He wears glasses, a red or yellow polo shirt with a white collar, and blue or black shorts and white socks and light blue shoes. Although he's not good at sports, he's good at shooting. He is usually accompanied by Doraemon, who functions as his caretaker. Although he's not good at sports, he's good at shooting and has been reflected in the movies many time. He's also good at string figure which sometime considered a girls' game. Son of Tamako and Nobisuke Nobi. Future father of Nobisuke (his son). Future husband or boyfriend of Shizuka and great-great-grandfather of Sewashi. Taurus), nicknamed Shizuka-chan (しずかちゃん) is a smart, kind and pretty girl. She is often represented by the color pink, and is seen wearing a pink shirt and skirt.

The word 'Shizuka (しずか)' means 'Quiet'. She is Nobita's best friend. She does not shun Nobita due to his failing grades, lazy disposition or constant failures. In fact, she often tries to encourage him to do better, though she usually fails to convince him. Shizuka likes to take a bath several times a day; however, a running gag in the series is that she is sometimes interrupted by a sudden appearance of Nobita (sometimes Doraemon, Gian, or Suneo) usually due to misuse of Doraemon's gadgets like the Anywhere Door (Doko Demo Doa in Japanese). Shizuka's skirt is also frequently seen getting flipped, either by Nobita misusing Doraemon's gadgets, or by the wind. Scenes in which her underwear is seen, or she is seen bathing, have been removed from the dubbed versions, especially in India, Europe, the United States and the United Kingdom. Her true passions are sweet potatoes, which she would rather keep to herself out of the knowledge of others, and the violin, in which her playing is just as horrendous as Gian's singing. She is also known for taking piano lessons unwillingly due to her mother's wishes (as she loves violin more), which is sometimes a reason for declining to hang out with friends (but she plays piano better than violin). Shizuka is an animal lover and keeps two pets at home: a dog, who is saved from succumbing to illness by Nobita and Doraemon in one story; and a canary which runs away on multiple occasions and causing Shizuka and Nobita to run around the city chasing her down.

She sometimes fansies some handsome idols on TV. Besides Nobita, Shizuka is also close to her classmate and popular student Dekisugi. Though they consider each other only as friends. Gemini), named Buster in the Cinar dub and Bob in the Speedy dub, usually known by the nickname "Gian" (「ジャイアン」, "Jaian", English: Big G) is a strong and quick-tempered local bully. He also frequently steals other children's stuff (especially Nobita's and Suneo's) under the pretext of "borrowing" them, unless the toy is damaged. He is known for his awful singing voice, though he considers himself a great singer. To prove this, Gian sometimes "invites" others to attend his concerts, under the threat of beatings. His singing is so horrible that, once, Nobita and Doraemon try to mute it in a silent world, his writings of the song lyrics in a board end up having the same effect as when they hear them.Though his voice is terrible in one of the episodes it was shown that a girl liked his singing. In some films, his singing is enhanced to become an effective weapon (as in 'Nobita's Great Adventure in the South Seas'). In some episodes when his voice is recorded and he hears it, he instantly denies it being his voice and threatens to beat up the person who his songs in a very bad way (which is an irony).


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