Does the Sundanese include the Javanese?

Comic book store in Tokyo Japan.Tokyo is the combination of 26 neighbourhoods, every singel one with it's own identity. Every neighbourhood has a commercial area the has neon, shops, restaurants and people.The Sundanese are a tribe that inhabits the western part of the island of Java. In 1998, the Sundanese numbered approximately 33 million people, most of them living in West Java and Banten and about 3 million living in other provinces. Of them, the urban population reaches 34.51%, a significant number that can be reached by various media. Which gave birth to a great civilization in the world. Sundanese is the culture of the Sundanese people who live in the western region of the island of Java. Indonesia, namely the Kingdom of Salakanagara and Tarumanegara to Galuh, Pakuan Pajajaran, and Sumedang Larang. Sundanese people are believed to have Kasundaan ethos/character/character as a way to the virtues of life. The Sundanese character/character in question is cageur (healthy), bageur (good), true (right), singer (skilled), and clever (smart/intelligent) which has existed since the 17th century Salaka Nagara era to Sumedang Larang, has been bring prosperity and prosperity for more than 1000 years. The Sundanese are not like most other tribes; the Sundanese do not have a creation myth or record of other myths explaining the origin of this tribe. No one knows where they came from, nor how they settled in West Java. Presumably in the first centuries AD, a small group of Sundanese tribes explored the mountain forests and carried out a slash-and-burn culture to clear the forest. All the earliest myths say that the Sundanese were more laborers in the fields than rice farmers. Their beliefs formed the foundation of what is now called the original religion of the Sundanese.

No one knows exactly when Hindu patterns began to develop in Indonesia, and who brought them along.

Son Goku While it is impossible to know for sure what this belief was like, the best clues are found in ancient epic poems (Wawacan) and among remote Bedouin tribes. The Badui people call their religion as Sunda Wiwitan (the earliest Sundanese people). Not only the Bedouin are almost completely free from Islamic elements, but the Sundanese also show very few Hindu characteristics. Some Sanskrit and Hindu words related to myths still exist. In his monograph, Robert Wessing cites several sources indicating Sundanese in general, "The Indian belief system did not totally displace the indigenous beliefs, even at the court centers." Based on the taboo system, the Bedouin religion is animistic. They believe that spirits inhabit rocks, trees, rivers, and other inanimate objects. These spirits do both good and evil things, depending on one's obedience to the taboo system. Thousands of taboo beliefs are used in every aspect of everyday life. No one knows exactly when Hindu patterns began to develop in Indonesia, and who brought them along. It is recognized that these Hindu patterns originated in India; maybe from the south coast. But the Hindu character in Java raises more questions than answers. For example, the main Hindu centers were not in the trading towns on the coast, but more in the interior. It seems clear that it was religious ideas that had conquered the minds of the local people, not the army. A theory holds that the power of the Hindu/Indian rulers had attracted Indonesians to the spirit-magical beliefs of Hinduism. Somehow, many aspects of the Hindu belief system were absorbed into the minds of the Sundanese as well as the Javanese.

The oldest known Sundanese literary work is Caritha Parahyangan. This work was written around the year 1000 and glorifies the Javanese king Sanjaya as a great warrior. Sanjaya was a follower of Shivaism so we know that the Hindu faith was deeply entrenched before the year 700. Surprisingly around this time, the second Indian religion, Buddhism, made an appearance in such a short time. Not long after the Shiva temples were built on the Dieng plateau in Central Java, the magnificent Borobudur monument was erected near Yogyakarta to the south. Among the Sundanese as well as the Javanese, Hinduism is mixed with ancient ancestor worship. The custom of celebrating ritual days after the death of a family member still continues today. The Hindu view of life and death heightens the value of such rituals. With variations that are not limited to the theme of the spiritual body coexisting with the natural body, Indonesians have incorporated Hindu philosophy into their own conditions. JC van Leur theorizes that Hinduism helped harden Sundanese cultural forms.

Kertanegara (1268-92) was the king of Java at the end of the Hindu period in Indonesia.

In particular, magical beliefs and spirits have absolute value in the life of the Sundanese. One expert on Sundanese customs, Prawirasuganda, stated that the taboo figures associated with all important aspects of the life cycle of Sundanese celebrations are the same as those of the Bedouin. Great kingdoms arose in Central and East Java but little changed among the Sundanese. And the kingdom is inseparable from the Hindu civilization that first developed in West Java, namely the Tarumanagara kingdom. With the oldest heritage in the archipelago. Although limited, Hindu influence among the Sundanese was not as strong as that among the Javanese. However, as insignificant as West Java is, the Sundanese had a king during Airlangga's time in East Java, circa 1020. But the Sundanese kings were increasingly under the control of the great Javanese kingdoms. Kertanegara (1268-92) was the king of Java at the end of the Hindu period in Indonesia. After Kertanegara's reign, the Majapahit kings ruled until 1478, but they ceased to be important after 1389. However, this Javanese influence continued and deepened the influence of Hinduism on the Sundanese. The climax was when the land of Parahyangan fell into the control of the Islamic Mataram which was then led by Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo, the influence of Javanese culture on Sundanese was felt. Starting from Sundanese, which was previously egalitarian, to a language that recognizes language levels.

Cultural arts such as wayang golek are adapted from wayang kulit art from Java. At the same time, since Mataram controlled the gamelan parahyangan, it entered the land of Pasundan. In addition, there are many more evidences of the influence of Javanese culture such as traditional Sundanese clothes in weddings, etc. But to the west of the Parahyangan Tatar there is also the Banten kingdom which developed as a sophisticated and modern kingdom in its era. Which has trade routes with the nations of the world. The kingdom of Banten under Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa steadfastly fought to expel western colonialism in the archipelago, a fertile and prosperous homeland. In 1333, there was the Pajajaran kingdom near the present city of Bogor. At the time the port of Sunda Kelapa was an important port in the archipelago, it was even a trade route for Asia. This made Sunda Kelapa Harbor visited by traders from Europe, and according to the perspective of the Majapahit kingdom, this Kingdom was defeated by the Majapahit kingdom under the leadership of its famous prime minister, Gadjah Mada. According to the romantic story Kidung Sunda, a Sundanese princess was about to be married to Hayam Wuruk, king of Majapahit, but Gajah Mada opposed this marriage and after the Sundanese gathered for the wedding, he changed the terms. When the king and the Sundanese nobles heard that the princess would only be a concubine and there would be no marriage as promised, they fought against many of these obstacles until all of them died as a result of the unequal number of troops (the only Sundanese troops sent were bodyguards for the bridal party). Although the hostility between Sundanese and Javanese continued for many years after this episode, the influence exerted by the Javanese never diminished on the Sundanese.

With the fall of Siliwangi, Islam took control of most of West Java.

Until now, the Kingdom of Pajajaran is considered the oldest Sundanese kingdom. Although this kingdom only lasted for the years 1482-1579, many of the activities of its nobles are embodied in legend. Siliwangi, the Hindu king of Pajajaran, was overthrown by a plot between the Muslim groups of Banten, Cirebon, and Demak in a conspiracy with his own nephew. With the fall of Siliwangi, Islam took control of most of West Java. The key factor in the success of Islam was the development of Islam in Cirebon then headed to Banten with the support of the Demak kingdom from Central Java to West Java before 1540. From the east to the west, Islam penetrated as far as Priangan (the central highlands) and reached all of Sunda. Muslims had existed in the archipelago in the early 1100s but before Malacca, which was in the Malacca strait, became a Muslim stronghold in 1414, the growth of Islam at that time was minimal. Aceh in North Sumatra began to develop its Islamic influence around 1416. Muslim scholars date the arrival of Islam to Indonesia almost to the time of Muhammad.

Raden Patah settled in Demak which became the first Islamic kingdom in Java.

But some of the events they record may not be important. The real arrival of Islam seems to have occurred when Arab and Persian missionaries entered Java in the early 1400s and gradually won over converts among the ruling classes. Before 1450, Islam had gained a foothold in the court of Majapahit in East Java. Van Leur estimates this is helped by the disintegration of Brahma culture in India. Surabaya (Ampel) became the center of Islamic learning and from there famous Arab businessmen expanded their power. The fall of the Javanese kingdom, namely the Majapahit kingdom in 1468 is associated with intrigue in the royal family due to the fact that the king's son, Raden Patah converted to Islam. In both East Java and West Java, rebellions within the royal families were driven by Islamic military pressure. When the nobles change their beliefs, the people will follow. Nonetheless, Vlekke points out that pre-religious wars were rare throughout Javanese history. Raden Patah settled in Demak which became the first Islamic kingdom in Java. Previously in Cirebon, the Islamic community had developed because of the support from the authorities in Cirebon, this can be seen with the existence of the first mosque in Cirebon. Bernard Vlekke said that Demak expanded its territory to West Java because Javanese politics had little interest in Islam. At that time, Sunan Gunung Jati sent his son Hasanuddin from Cirebon, to convert the Sundanese extensively. In 1526, both Banten and Sunda Kelapa came under the control of Sunan Gunung Jati who became the first Sultan of Banten. This juxtaposition of Cirebon with Demak has brought West Java under Islamic rule. By the second quarter of the 16th century, the entire north coast of West Java was under the rule of Islamic leaders and the population had become Muslim.

In 1641, they took Malacca from the Portuguese and assumed control of the sea lanes.

Since according to population statistics in 1780 there were approximately 260,000 inhabitants in West Java, we can assume that in the 16th century the population was much less. This shows that Islam entered when the Sundanese were still a small tribe located mainly on the beaches and in river valleys such as Ciliwung, Citarum, and Cisadane. When Islam came to Sunda, the five main pillars of religion were emphasized, but in many other areas of religious thought, syncretism developed from the perspective of the early Sundanese. Indonesian historian Soeroto believes that Islam was prepared for this in India. Scholars believe that Islam accepts that customs that benefit society must be preserved. Thus Islam mixed heavily with Hinduism and the indigenous customs of the people. The marriage of some of these religions is commonly called "Javanese Religion". The result of the mixing of Islam with multiple belief systems, often called kebatinan schools, provides an accurate description of the complexities of religion among the Sundanese today. Prior to the arrival of the Dutch in Indonesia in 1596, Islam had been the dominant influence among the aristocrats and leaders of the Sundanese and Javanese communities. Simply put, the Dutch were at war with the Islamic powerhouses to control island trade and this created hostility that extended the Crusades conflict into the Indonesian arena. In 1641, they took Malacca from the Portuguese and assumed control of the sea lanes. The Dutch pressure on the Mataram kingdom was so strong that they were able to seize special economic rights in the mountainous area (Priangan) of West Java.

Prior to 1652, large areas of West Java were their stock. This started 300 years of Dutch exploitation in West Java which only ended with World War II. The events of the 18th century presented a series of Dutch mistakes in the social, political and religious fields. The entire lowlands of West Java suffered under the oppressive conditions imposed by the local rulers. An example is the Banten area. In 1750, the people staged a revolution against the sultanate which was controlled by an Arab woman, Queen Sjarifa. According to Ayip Rosidi, Ratu Sjarifa was a Dutch accomplice. However, Vlekke argues that "Kiai Tapa", the leader, was a Hindu, and that the revolt was directed more at Islamic leaders than the Dutch colonialists. During the first 200 years of the Dutch rule in Indonesia, few problems were associated with religion. The Dutch did nothing to bring Christianity, the religion of the Dutch people, to the Indonesian population. Until 1800, there was a "company church" namely "church" which was only in name because it only functioned to serve the needs of the Dutch workers in the East India Company (VOC). This body regulates all Dutch activities in the Indonesian archipelago. Until the 19th century there were no cities for Indonesian children so the people had no way of knowing Christianity. At the turn of the 19th century, the VOC went out of business and Napoleon occupied the Netherlands. In 1811, Britain became the administrator of the Dutch East Indies. One of their initiatives was to open the country to missionary activity. However, little was done in Java until the middle of the century. However, some foundations have been laid in East and Central Java which serve as models for work among the Sundanese.


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