Where Did the Maya Live? Early Maya, 1800 BC Mayan Pyramids of the Classic Maya, AD What Happened to the Maya? Do the Maya Still Exist? The Mayan Empire, centered in the tropical lowlands of what is now Guatemala, reached the peak of its power and influence around the sixth century AD The Maya excelled at agriculture, pottery, writing, calendars and mathematics, and left behind an astonishing amount of impressive architecture and symbolic artwork. Most of the great stone cities of the Maya were abandoned by AD 900, however, and since the 19th century scholars have debated what might have caused this dramatic decline. Where Did the Maya Live? The Maya civilization was one of the most dominant Indigenous societies of Mesoamerica (a term used to describe Mexico and Central America before the 16th century Spanish conquest). Unlike other scattered Indigenous populations of Mesoamerica, the Maya were centered in one geographical block covering all of the Yucatan Peninsula and modern-day Guatemala; Belize and parts of the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas; and the western part of Honduras and El Salvador.
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This concentration showed that the Maya remained relatively secure from invasion by other Mesoamerican peoples. Did you know? Among the earliest Maya a single language existed, but by the Preclassic Period a great linguistic diversity developed among the various Maya peoples. In modern-day Mexico and Central America, around 5 million people speak some 70 Maya languages; most of them are bilingual in Spanish. Within that expand, the Maya lived in three separate sub-areas with distinct environmental and cultural differences: the northern Maya lowlands on the Yucatan Peninsula; the southern lowlands in the Peten district of northern Guatemala and adjacent portions of Mexico, Belize and western Honduras; and the southern Maya highlands, in the mountainous region of southern Guatemala. Most famously, the Maya of the southern lowland region reached their peak during the Classic Period of Maya civilization (AD 250 to 900), and built the great stone cities and monuments that have fascinated explorers and scholars of the region to this day. Early Maya, 1800 BC The earliest Maya settlements date to around 1800 BC, or the beginning of what is called the Preclassic or Formative Period.
The earliest Maya were agricultural, growing crops such as corn (maize), beans, squash and cassava (manioc). During the Middle Preclassic Period, which lasted until about 300 BC, Maya farmers began to expand their presence both in the highland and lowland regions. The Middle Preclassic Period also saw the rise of the first major Mesoamerican civilization, the Olmecs. Like other Mesamerican peoples, such as the Zapotec, Totonac, Teotihuacán and Aztec, the Maya derived a number of religious and cultural traits-as well as their number system and their famous calendar-from the Olmec. In addition to agriculture, the Preclassic Maya also displayed more advanced cultural traits like pyramid-building, city construction and the inscribing of stone monuments. The Late Preclassic city of Mirador, in the northern Peten, was one of the greatest cities ever built in the pre-Columbian Americas. Its size dwarfed the Classic Maya capital of Tikal, and its existence proves that the Maya flourished centuries before the Classic Period. Mayan Pyramids of the Classic Maya, AD
The Classic Period, which began around AD 250, was the golden age of the Maya Empire. Classic Maya civilization grew to some 40 cities, including Tikal, Uaxactún, Copán, Bonampak, Dos Pilas, Calakmul, Palenque and Río Bec; each city held a population of between 5,000 and 50,000 people. Excavations of Maya sites have unearthed plazas, palaces, temples and pyramids, as well as courts for playing the famous Maya ball game ulama, all ritually and politically significant to Maya culture. Maya cities were surrounded and supported by a large population of farmers. Though the Maya practiced a primitive type of "slash-and-burn" agriculture, they also displayed evidence of more advanced farming methods, such as irrigation and terracing. Was Commodus the Worst Emperor in Ancient Roman History? The Maya were deeply religious, and worshiped various gods related to nature, including the gods of the sun, the moon, rain and corn. At the top of Maya society were the kings, or "kuhul ajaw" (holy lords), who claimed to be related to gods and followed a hereditary succession. They were thought to serve as mediators between the gods and people on earth, and performed the elaborate religious ceremonies and rituals so important to the Maya culture.
They are also credited with some of the earliest uses of chocolate and of rubber.
The Classic Maya built many of their temples and palaces in a stepped pyramid shape, decorating them with elaborate reliefs and inscriptions. These structures have earned the Maya their reputation as the great artists of Mesoamerica. Guided by their religious ritual, the Maya also made significant advances in mathematics and astronomy, including the use of the zero and the development of complex calendar systems like the Calendar Round, based on 365 days, and later, the Long Count Calendar, designed to last over 5,000 years. Serious exploration of Classic Maya sites began in the 1830s. By the early to mid-20th century, a small portion of their system of hieroglyph writing had been deciphered, and more about their history and culture became known. Most of what historians know about the Maya comes from what remains of their architecture and art, including stone carvings and inscriptions on their buildings and monuments. The Maya also made paper from tree bark and wrote in books made from this paper, known as codices; four of these codices are known to have survived. They are also credited with some of the earliest uses of chocolate and of rubber. One of the many imagination things about the Maya was their ability to build a great civilization in a tropical rainforest climate. Traditionally, ancient peoples had flourished in drier climates, where the centralized management of water resources (through irrigation and other techniques) formed the basis of society.
What Happened to the Maya?
In the southern Maya lowlands, however, there were few navigable rivers for trade and transport, as well as no obvious need for an irrigation system. By the late 20th century, researchers had concluded that the climate of the lowlands was in fact quite environmentally diverse. Though foreign invaders were disappointed by the region's relative lack of silver and gold, the Maya took advantage of the area's many natural resources, including limestone (for construction), the volcanic rock obsidian (for tools and weapons) and salt. The environment also held other treasures for the Maya, including jade, quetzal feathers (used to decorate the elaborate costumes of Maya nobility) and marine shells, which were used as trumpets in ceremonies and warfare. What Happened to the Maya? From the late eighth through the end of the ninth century, something unknown happened to shake the Maya civilization to its foundations. One by one, the Classic cities in the southern lowlands were abandoned, and by AD 900, Mayan civilization in that region had collapsed. The reason for this mysterious decline is unknown, though scholars have developed several competing theories. Some believe that by the ninth century the Maya had exhausted the environment around them to the point that it could no longer sustain a very large population.
Other Maya scholars argue that constant warfare among competing city-states led the complicated military, family (by marriage) and trade alliances between them to break down, along with the traditional system of dynastic power. As the stature of the holy lords diminished, their complex traditions of rituals and ceremonies dissolved into chaos. Finally, some catastrophic environmental change - like an extremely long, intense period of drought - may have wiped out the Classic Maya civilization. Drought would have hit cities like Tikal especially hard, because rainwater there was necessary for drinking as well as for crop irrigation. All three of these factors - overpopulation and overuse of the land, endemic warfare and drought - may have played a part in the downfall of the Maya in the southern lowlands. In the highlands of the Yucatan, a few Maya cities, such as Chichen Itza, Uxmal and Mayapán, continued to flourish in the Post-Classic Period (AD 900-1500). By the time the Spanish invaders arrived, however, most Maya were living in agricultural villages, their great cities hidden under a layer of verdant rainforest. Do the Maya Still Exist? Descendants of the Maya still live in Central America in modern-day Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and parts of Mexico. The majority of modern-day Maya live in Guatemala, which is home to Tikal National Park, the site of the ruins of the ancient city of Tikal. Roughly 40 percent of Guatemalans are of Mayan descent.
This list describes characters from the anime and manga series Doraemon. Also listed are their original NTV voice actors (1973), followed by their TV Asahi voice actors (1979-2005; 2005-present). Part of the 22nd century characters are listed in The Doraemons. Each main character represents a primary school student archetype. Nobita appears in every episode of the anime, while Doraemon appears in most episodes, sometimes being substituted (for medical checkup or on leave) by his sister, Dorami. Note: In some translations of Doraemon, the names of these characters are different from the original names. 2.9 Nobisuke Nobi Jr. Albert in the Cinar dub of the series, is the title character and co-protagonist of the series. He is a cat-like robot from the future. He was yellow-skinned and had ears originally. However, his ears were accidentally eaten by a robot mouse. It left him heartbroken and caused his skin to turn blue. People often mistake him for a raccoon dog. He is sent back in time by Sewashi (Nobita's Great-great-grandson) to aid Nobita. Doraemon possesses a 4-dimensional pocket from which he can acquire various kinds of futuristic tools, gadgets, and playthings from a future department store.
He also has the tendency to panic during emergencies, characterized by him frantically trying to pull out a very much-needed tool from his pocket, only to produce a huge assortment of household items and unwanted gadgets. Still, Doraemon is very friendly and intelligent, not to mention long-suffering because of Nobita's antics. Since Sewashi sent Doraemon to the past, Doraemon has been living as the unofficial fourth member of Nobita's family and acts like a second son to Nobita's parents, since despite being a robot, he requires basic needs for a person, such as eating, and also sleeps in the closet of Nobita's bedroom. He also fears mice greatly (due to a robot mouse having eaten his ears), even go crazy about it and pull out devastating gadgets, and most of the times, Nobita saves Doraemon in such situations. Although he has no fingers in most media, he can hold things because of the suction cups in his hands. His favorite food is Dorayaki. He has also been shown to date with normal female cat. He is the elder brother of Dorami.
Nobita Nobi (野比, Nobi Nobita, English dub: Sidney in the Cinar dub, Specky in the Speedy dub, and Noby Nobi in the Bang Zoom! dub) is the co-protagonist of the series. He wears glasses, a red or yellow polo shirt with a white collar, and blue or black shorts and white socks and light blue shoes. Although he's not good at sports, he's good at shooting. He is usually accompanied by Doraemon, who functions as his caretaker. Although he's not good at sports, he's good at shooting and has been reflected in the movies many time. He's also good at string figure which sometime considered a girls' game. Son of Tamako and Nobisuke Nobi. Future father of Nobisuke (his son). Future husband or boyfriend of Shizuka and great-great-grandfather of Sewashi. Taurus), nicknamed Shizuka-chan (しずかちゃん) is a smart, kind and pretty girl. She is often represented by the color pink, and is seen wearing a pink shirt and skirt.