Before Majapahit What Kingdom?

Red and white is the color of the greatness used by Majapahit. How this color was used by Majapahit is still disputed, see the related article for a description. The Majapahit Empire was the last Hindu-Buddhist empire to rule the archipelago and is considered the largest monarchy in Indonesian history. According to Negarakertagama, its power extends from Java, Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Kalimantan, the Philippines (Sulu Islands, Manila (Saludung)), Sulawesi, Papua, and others. The history of the Majapahit empire is still an interesting research subject to be discussed and explored further. The main sources used by historians include Pararaton ('Book of the Kings') in Kawi and Nagarakretagama in Old Javanese. Pararaton tells of Ken Arok (founder of the Singhasari Kingdom) but also contains several short passages about the formation of Majapahit. Meanwhile, Nagarakertagama is an Old Javanese poem written during the golden age of Majapahit under the reign of Hayam Wuruk. Kakawin Nagarakretagama in 2008 was recognized as part of the World Memory of the World Program by UNESCO. In addition, there are several inscriptions in Old Javanese as well as historical records from China and other countries. Some scholars such as CC Berg consider that some of the manuscripts are not records of the past, but have supernatural meaning in terms of being able to know the future. However, there are also many scholars who think that the outline of these sources is acceptable because it is in line with historical records from China, especially the list of rulers and the state of the kingdom which is quite convincing.

In 2010, a group of Japanese businessmen led by Takajo Yoshiaki financed the construction of the Majapahit ship or Spirit of Majapahit which would sail to Asia. According to Takajo, this was done to commemorate the cooperation between Majapahit and the Japanese Empire against the Chinese (Mongol) Kingdom in the war in the Pacific Ocean. According to Professor of Archeology of Southeast Asia at the National University of Singapore John N. Miksic, Majapahit's range of power covered Sumatra and Singapore and even Thailand as evidenced by the influence of culture, building styles, temples, sculptures and art. There is even a martial arts school called Kali Majapahit which is popular in the Philippines with members from Asia and America. This Kali Majapahit silat claims to be rooted in the ancient Majapahit Empire which is said to have ruled the Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia and Southern Thailand. Before the establishment of Majapahit, Singhasari had been the most powerful kingdom in Java. This came to the attention of Kublai Khan, the ruler of the Yuan Dynasty in China. Singhasari who demanded tribute. Kertanagara, the last ruler of the Singhasari kingdom refused to pay tribute and humiliated the envoy by damaging his face and cutting off his ear.

When the Mongols arrived, Wijaya allied with the Mongols to fight against Jayakatwang.

At that time, Jayakatwang, the duke of Kediri, had overthrown and killed Kertanegara. On the advice of Aria Wiraraja, Jayakatwang pardoned Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara's son-in-law, who came to surrender. Then, Wiraraja sent an envoy to Daha, who brought a letter containing the statement, Raden Wijaya surrendered and wanted to serve Jayakatwang. Answers to the above letter are welcome. Raden Wijaya was then given the Tarik forest. He opened the forest and built a new village. The village is named after Majapahit, after the maja fruit, and the "bitter" taste of the fruit. When the Mongols arrived, Wijaya allied with the Mongols to fight against Jayakatwang. After succeeding in overthrowing Jayakatwang, Raden Wijaya turned to attack his Mongol allies, forcing them to pull back his troops in a frenzy because they were in a foreign land. It was also their last chance to catch the monsoons to return home, or else they would have to wait another six months on a strange island. The exact date used as the birth date of the Majapahit kingdom is the day of the coronation of Raden Wijaya as king, which is the 15th of the month of Kartika in 1215 Saka which coincides with November 10, 1293. He was crowned with the official name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana.

Pararaton calls it Kala Gemet, which means "weak villain".

This kingdom is facing a problem. Some of Kertarajasa's trusted men, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi, rebelled against him, although the rebellion was unsuccessful. The Ranggalawe rebellion was supported by Panji Mahajaya, Ra Arya Sidi, Ra Jaran Waha, Ra Lintang, Ra Tosan, Ra Gelatik, and Ra Tati. All of this is mentioned in Pararaton. Slamet Muljana suspected that Mahapatih Halayudha was the one who conspired to overthrow all the king's trusted people, so that he could reach the highest position in government. But after the death of the last rebel (Kuti), Halayudha was captured and imprisoned, and then sentenced to death. Wijaya's son and successor was Jayanegara. Pararaton calls it Kala Gemet, which means "weak villain". Sometime during the reign of Jayanegara, an Italian priest, Odorico da Pordenone visited the Majapahit palace in Java. In 1328, Jayanegara was killed by his healer, Tanca. His stepmother, Gayatri Rajapatni, was supposed to succeed him, but Rajapatni chose to resign from the palace and become a nun. Rajapatni appointed his daughter Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi to be the queen of Majapahit. In 1336, Tribhuwana appointed Gajah Mada as Mahapatih, at the time of his inauguration Gajah Mada uttered the Palapa Oath indicating his plan to expand Majapahit's power and establish an empire. During Tribhuwana's reign, the Majapahit kingdom grew larger and more famous in the archipelago. Tribhuwana ruled in Majapahit until the death of his mother in 1350. He was succeeded by his son, Hayam Wuruk. Under the reign of Hayam Wuruk, the Majapahit Kingdom reached the peak of its glory. Hayam Wuruk was assisted by Mahapatih Gajah Mada in his government. Under the rule of Hayam Wuruk, Majapahit carried out a policy of expansion to ensure its strength in the field of trade by sea, as well as the implementation of the Palapa Oath declared by the governor of Gajah Mada.

39;s expeditions have created Chinese and Arab Muslim communities in several areas.

Majapahit also conquered the Pasai Kingdom and the Aru Kingdom (later named the Deli Sultanate). After reaching its peak in the 14th century, Majapahit's power gradually weakened. After the death of Hayam Wuruk in 1389, Majapahit entered a period of decline due to the conflict over the throne. The death of Hayam Wuruk and the conflict over the throne caused the Majapahit regions in northern Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula to become independent, where the Malay peninsula became the territory of the Ayutthaya Kingdom until later the Sultanate of Melaka, supported by the Ming Dynasty, emerged. Hayam Wuruk's heir was the crown princess Kusumawardhani, who married her own cousin, prince Wikramawardhana. Hayam Wuruk also had a son by his concubine Wirabhumi who also claimed his right to the throne. The civil war called the Regreg War is estimated to have occurred in 1405-1406, between Wirabhumi and Wikramawardhana. This war was finally won by Wikramawardhana, while Wirabhumi was captured and later sentenced to death. It seems that this civil war weakened Majapahit's control over its conquered territories in other areas. During the reign of Wikramawardhana, a series of Ming Dynasty naval expeditions led by Admiral Zheng He, a Chinese Muslim general, arrived in Java several times between 1405 and 1433. Since 1430 Zheng He's expeditions have created Chinese and Arab Muslim communities in several areas. port cities on the north coast of Java, such as in Semarang, Demak, Tuban, and Ampel; so Islam began to have a foothold on the north coast of Java. When Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and missionaries had already begun to enter the archipelago.

In the late 14th and early 15th centuries, Majapahit's influence throughout the archipelago began to wane. At the same time, a new trading empire based on Islam, the Sultanate of Malacca, began to emerge in the western part of the archipelago. In the western part of this crumbling empire, Majapahit was no longer able to stem the rise of the Malacca Sultanate, which in the mid-15th century began to dominate the Malacca Strait and expand its power to Sumatra. Meanwhile, several colonies and areas conquered by Majapahit in other areas in the archipelago, one by one, began to break away. During the reign of Wikramawardhana, Majapahit's territory on the island of Sumatra was only Indragiri, Jambi and Palembang, as written in the Yingyai Shenglan notes created by Ma Huan, one of the translators of Admiral Zheng He. And after the death of Wikramawardhana and the reign of his successors, the area of ​​Indragiri was given to Mansur Shah of Malacca as a wedding gift to the princess of Majapahit, which further reduced Majapahit's control of Sumatra. Wikramawardhana ruled until 1426, and was succeeded by his daughter, Ratu Suhita, who ruled from 1426 to 1447. She is the second daughter of Wikramawardhana from a concubine who is also the second daughter of Bhre Wirabhumi. In 1447, Suhita died and the reign was continued by Kertawijaya, her younger brother.

He ruled until 1451. After Kertawijaya died, Bhre Pamotan became king with the title Rajasawardhana and ruled in Kahuripan. There was a gap of three years without a king due to the crisis in the inheritance of the throne between Rajasawardhana's son and Girisawardhana, Rajasawardhana's younger brother, Kertawijaya's son. Girishawardhana won and ascended the throne in 1456. He later died in 1466 and was succeeded by Suraprabhawa (Singhawikramawardhana), his younger brother, Kertawijaya's youngest son. Then in 1468, Bhre Kertabhumi, the youngest son of Rajasawardhana, rebelled against Singhawikramawardhana. After experiencing defeat in the power struggle with Bhre Kertabumi, Singhawikramawardhana fled to the interior in the Keling area, Daha (the former capital of the Kediri Kingdom). After Singhawikramawardhana died, he was succeeded by his son Ranawijaya. In 1474, Ranawijaya defeated Kertabhumi by taking advantage of Hindu and Buddhist dissatisfaction with the Bhre Kertabumi policy and reuniting Majapahit into one kingdom. Ranawijaya then moved the capital of Majapahit to Daha and ruled from 1474 to 1498 with the title Girindrawardhana until he was succeeded by Patih Air. As a result of this dynastic conflict, Majapahit became weak and the power of the Demak kingdom began to rise. 154-155) which had been hit and focused on the interior of the island of Java.

Actually, the Majapahit-Demak war had begun to subside when Patih Air replaced Girindrawardhana and acknowledged Demak's power, but the war raged again when Patih Air asked for Portuguese help to defeat Demak. So in 1527, Demak made an attack on Daha which ended the history of Majapahit. With the fall of the capital Daha which was destroyed by Demak in 1527, in the early 16th century the power of the Demak kingdom finally defeated the remnants of Majapahit and became the end of the Majapahit Kingdom. The remnants of the Majapahit family descended from Girindrawardhana then fled to the Panarukan area, Blambangan (now Banyuwangi Regency). A large number of courtiers, artists, priests, and members of the royal family fled to the island of Bali. Demak ensured its position as a regional power and became the first Islamic kingdom to stand on the land of Java. At that time, after the fall of Majapahit, the only remaining Hindu kingdoms in Java were the Blambangan kingdom at the east end, and the Sunda kingdom, whose capital was Pajajaran in the west. Slowly Islam began to spread as the Hindu community retreated to the mountains and to Bali.

His main weapon is a spear.

Several pockets of the Tengger Hindu community still survive in the Tengger mountains, Bromo and Semeru areas. During the Majapahit era, there was development, preservation, and dissemination of the technique of making kris. The technique of making keris is refined and the selection of materials is becoming more selective. The pre-Majapahit kris were known to be heavy but from this time onwards, the light but strong blade of the keris became an indication of the quality of a kris. The use of kris as a sign of greatness among the aristocracy also developed at this time and spread to various parts of the archipelago, especially in the western part. According to Nino Oktorino, soldiers in the early Majapahit era were dominated by light infantry. Soldiers are divided into 2 main types, namely soldiers (professional troops) and conscripted troops taken from farmers. His main weapon is a spear. 84-85, 130 Cavalry were in limited numbers, they were used for reconnaissance and patrol, possibly armed with spears. 90, 94 Chariots were used to transport soldiers to the battlefield. 96 War elephants were used primarily for transportation, or as mounts for nobles and higher-ranking soldiers. A hand cannon type cetbang, found in the Brantas river, Jombang. A double-barreled cetbang on a gun carriage, with a swivel fork, circa 1522. The mouth of the cannon is in the shape of a Javanese dragon. In addition to the keris, the technique of making and using a spear and a simple ship cannon was also developed, called a cetbang. Majapahit under Mahapatih (prime minister) Gajah Mada utilized gunpowder weapon technology obtained from the Yuan dynasty for use in the naval fleet. 57 Early cetbangs (called eastern-style cetbangs) were shaped like Chinese cannons and hand cannons. Eastern-style cetbangs were mostly made of bronze and were front-loaded cannons. These arrows can be solid-tipped without explosives, or with explosives and incendiary materials behind the tip.

Near the rear, there is a combustion chamber or chamber, which refers to the bulging part near the rear of the gun, where the gunpowder is placed. The cetbang is mounted on a fixed mount, or as a hand cannon mounted on the end of a pole. There is a tube-like section on the back of the cannon. In the hand cannon type cetbang, this tube is used as a place to stick poles. Because of the close maritime relations of the archipelago with the territory of West India, after 1460 types of gunpowder weapons entered the archipelago through Arab intermediaries. This weapon appears to be a traditional Ottoman cannon and rifle, for example the prangi, which is a rear-loaded swivel cannon. 94-95 He produced a new type of cetbang, called the "western-style cetbang". It could be mounted as a fixed gun or a rotary cannon, the smaller one could easily be mounted on a small boat called a penjajap (Portuguese: Pangajaua or Pangajava), as well as a glider. This cannon is used as an anti-personnel weapon, not anti-ship. In this era, even up to the 17th century, Indonesian navy soldiers fought on a stage known as a hall (see picture of the ship). Shot at a group of soldiers with scattershot bullets (spread bullets or buckshot bullets, can be grapeshot, case shot, or nails and stones), the cetbang is very effective for this type of battle.


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